易哈佛 \ 大学英语 \ 2019年青海大学英语考试考前冲刺卷(7)

2019年青海大学英语考试考前冲刺卷(7)

2020年大学英语考点真题库

2019年青海大学英语考试考前冲刺卷(7)

  • 本卷共分为1大题50小题,作答时间为180分钟,总分100分,60分及格。
  • 试卷来源:易哈佛教育

一、单项选择题(共50题,每题2分。每题的备选项中,只有一个最符合题意)

12.If you can’t get a dose of sunshine then a daily vitamin D supplement could help keep colds away during winter, according to a small Finnish study. Researchers have been interested in whether the vitamin might play a role in people’s susceptibility to colds, flu and other respiratory (呼吸的) infections as these illnesses rise during winter when people get little exposure to sunlight. The body naturally synthesizes vitamin D when the skin is exposed to sunlight. Researcher Dr. Ilkka Laaksi of the University of Tampere in Finland said some past studies found people with relatively lower vitamin D levels in their blood tended to have higher rates of respiratory infections than those with higher levels of the vitamin. Laaksi said along with that evidence, recent lab research had shown that vitamin D may play an important role in the body’s immune defenses against respiratory virus or bacteria. "However there is a lack of clinical studies of the effect of vitamin D supplementation for preventing respiratory infections," he told Reuters Health. For the latest study, Laaksi’s team randomly assigned 164 male military recruits to take either 400 international units (IU) of vitamin D or inactive placebo(安慰剂) pills every day for six months from October to March, the months when people’s vitamin D stores typically decline and when respiratory infections peak. After six months, the researchers found no clear difference between the two groups in the average number of days missed from duty due to a respiratory infection which included bronchitis, pneumonia, ear infections and sore throat. On average, men who took vitamin D missed about two days from duty because of a respiratory infection, compared with three days in the placebo group. That difference was not significant in statistical terms. But men in the vitamin D group were more likely to have no days missed from work due to a respiratory illness. Overall, 51 percent remained "healthy" throughout the study compared to 36 percent of the placebo group, the researchers reported in the Journal of Infectious Diseases. Laaksi said the findings offer some evidence of a benefit from vitamin D against respiratory infections but the extent of the benefit was not clear. While recruits in the vitamin group were more likely to have no days missed from duty, they were no less likely to report having cold-like symptoms at some point during the study period. Laaksi said larger clinical trials looking at different doses of vitamin D are still needed before the vitamin can be recommended for curbing the risk of respiratory infections. The Finnish study wants to show ______.

A. people should get a dose of sunshine everyday
B. vitamin D supplements may help people fight against cold
C. the body naturally synthesizes vitamin D when the skin is exposed to sunlight
D. respiratory infections rise during winter when people get little exposure to sunlight

13.Many work-at-home morns try their hands at direct selling as a way to pick up some cash while still spending time with their kids. A direct sales business can, indeed, provide a morn the best of both world—flexible hours and income. However, be careful. Direct sales can be a front for work at home scams, but more than that, you will want to carefully consider whether you will like direct sales. After that, look into some of the business issues outlined below and learn the direct sales industry’s terminology before you make any commitments. First and foremost, do you love the product If the answer is not an unqualified yes, look for a different product for your direct sales business. There are so many choices in direct sales businesses that you should be able to find a product you can get excited about. The beauty of a direct sales business is that this is an industry with fairly low start-up costs. Typically you must buy a sales kit, which can often be less than $100. You may also need to purchase sales aids, business cards, etc. But relative to many other home businesses, costs are low. However, if there are training costs and/or unexplained fees, beware; this could be the sign of a scam. And just like any other business, your direct sales business will have ongoing costs. Expect to pay for gasoline, cell phone and internet charges, paper and toner, gifts for clients, interest on items purchased on credit, childcare costs etc. Plus you have to pay for inventory. Yes, you will likely make back what you invest in inventory, but be sure you have adequate cash flow to cover this investment. How much inventory will you have to sell to make a profit And is the profit enough to cover the time and money you have invested in your direct sales business You may not have a clear idea of the amount of time your business requires up front, so the value of your time may have to be evaluated as you go. But you should have a clear idea on the costs, including any commissions taken by your upline, before you take the plunge. Reputable direct sales companies will buy back 100 percent of unsold, marketable inventory within the first year of purchase at 90 percent of what you paid, if you decide to leave the company. Read the fine print and be sure the company you are signing on with does this. Also be sure your inventory remains marketable. If it is edible, be sure it has not expired. Why do some work-at-home moms want to choose direct sales business

A. Because direct selling is a profitable business for the work-at-home moms.
B. Because they hope to earn some money while looking after their children.
C. Because they presume that direct selling coincides with their work at home.
D. Because the work-at-home moms have quite a mount of extra cash at hand.

14.If you can’t get a dose of sunshine then a daily vitamin D supplement could help keep colds away during winter, according to a small Finnish study. Researchers have been interested in whether the vitamin might play a role in people’s susceptibility to colds, flu and other respiratory (呼吸的) infections as these illnesses rise during winter when people get little exposure to sunlight. The body naturally synthesizes vitamin D when the skin is exposed to sunlight. Researcher Dr. Ilkka Laaksi of the University of Tampere in Finland said some past studies found people with relatively lower vitamin D levels in their blood tended to have higher rates of respiratory infections than those with higher levels of the vitamin. Laaksi said along with that evidence, recent lab research had shown that vitamin D may play an important role in the body’s immune defenses against respiratory virus or bacteria. "However there is a lack of clinical studies of the effect of vitamin D supplementation for preventing respiratory infections," he told Reuters Health. For the latest study, Laaksi’s team randomly assigned 164 male military recruits to take either 400 international units (IU) of vitamin D or inactive placebo(安慰剂) pills every day for six months from October to March, the months when people’s vitamin D stores typically decline and when respiratory infections peak. After six months, the researchers found no clear difference between the two groups in the average number of days missed from duty due to a respiratory infection which included bronchitis, pneumonia, ear infections and sore throat. On average, men who took vitamin D missed about two days from duty because of a respiratory infection, compared with three days in the placebo group. That difference was not significant in statistical terms. But men in the vitamin D group were more likely to have no days missed from work due to a respiratory illness. Overall, 51 percent remained "healthy" throughout the study compared to 36 percent of the placebo group, the researchers reported in the Journal of Infectious Diseases. Laaksi said the findings offer some evidence of a benefit from vitamin D against respiratory infections but the extent of the benefit was not clear. While recruits in the vitamin group were more likely to have no days missed from duty, they were no less likely to report having cold-like symptoms at some point during the study period. Laaksi said larger clinical trials looking at different doses of vitamin D are still needed before the vitamin can be recommended for curbing the risk of respiratory infections. Which of the following statements is true about vitamin D

A. It is naturally synthesized in sunlight.
B. Its supplements might help people cure respiratory infections.
C. Its level declines when people get exposed to sunlight.
D. It enhances the body’s immune defenses against respiratory virus or bacteria.

15.Many work-at-home morns try their hands at direct selling as a way to pick up some cash while still spending time with their kids. A direct sales business can, indeed, provide a morn the best of both world—flexible hours and income. However, be careful. Direct sales can be a front for work at home scams, but more than that, you will want to carefully consider whether you will like direct sales. After that, look into some of the business issues outlined below and learn the direct sales industry’s terminology before you make any commitments. First and foremost, do you love the product If the answer is not an unqualified yes, look for a different product for your direct sales business. There are so many choices in direct sales businesses that you should be able to find a product you can get excited about. The beauty of a direct sales business is that this is an industry with fairly low start-up costs. Typically you must buy a sales kit, which can often be less than $100. You may also need to purchase sales aids, business cards, etc. But relative to many other home businesses, costs are low. However, if there are training costs and/or unexplained fees, beware; this could be the sign of a scam. And just like any other business, your direct sales business will have ongoing costs. Expect to pay for gasoline, cell phone and internet charges, paper and toner, gifts for clients, interest on items purchased on credit, childcare costs etc. Plus you have to pay for inventory. Yes, you will likely make back what you invest in inventory, but be sure you have adequate cash flow to cover this investment. How much inventory will you have to sell to make a profit And is the profit enough to cover the time and money you have invested in your direct sales business You may not have a clear idea of the amount of time your business requires up front, so the value of your time may have to be evaluated as you go. But you should have a clear idea on the costs, including any commissions taken by your upline, before you take the plunge. Reputable direct sales companies will buy back 100 percent of unsold, marketable inventory within the first year of purchase at 90 percent of what you paid, if you decide to leave the company. Read the fine print and be sure the company you are signing on with does this. Also be sure your inventory remains marketable. If it is edible, be sure it has not expired. What can be learned from the last sentence of paragraph three

A. The work-at-home moms should be alert to the possibility of being cheated.
B. The work-at-home morns should not pay training cost and unnecessary fees.
C. There are possibly some unexpected fees when starting up the business.
D. Some training courses should be given to the work-at-home moms.

16.If you can’t get a dose of sunshine then a daily vitamin D supplement could help keep colds away during winter, according to a small Finnish study. Researchers have been interested in whether the vitamin might play a role in people’s susceptibility to colds, flu and other respiratory (呼吸的) infections as these illnesses rise during winter when people get little exposure to sunlight. The body naturally synthesizes vitamin D when the skin is exposed to sunlight. Researcher Dr. Ilkka Laaksi of the University of Tampere in Finland said some past studies found people with relatively lower vitamin D levels in their blood tended to have higher rates of respiratory infections than those with higher levels of the vitamin. Laaksi said along with that evidence, recent lab research had shown that vitamin D may play an important role in the body’s immune defenses against respiratory virus or bacteria. "However there is a lack of clinical studies of the effect of vitamin D supplementation for preventing respiratory infections," he told Reuters Health. For the latest study, Laaksi’s team randomly assigned 164 male military recruits to take either 400 international units (IU) of vitamin D or inactive placebo(安慰剂) pills every day for six months from October to March, the months when people’s vitamin D stores typically decline and when respiratory infections peak. After six months, the researchers found no clear difference between the two groups in the average number of days missed from duty due to a respiratory infection which included bronchitis, pneumonia, ear infections and sore throat. On average, men who took vitamin D missed about two days from duty because of a respiratory infection, compared with three days in the placebo group. That difference was not significant in statistical terms. But men in the vitamin D group were more likely to have no days missed from work due to a respiratory illness. Overall, 51 percent remained "healthy" throughout the study compared to 36 percent of the placebo group, the researchers reported in the Journal of Infectious Diseases. Laaksi said the findings offer some evidence of a benefit from vitamin D against respiratory infections but the extent of the benefit was not clear. While recruits in the vitamin group were more likely to have no days missed from duty, they were no less likely to report having cold-like symptoms at some point during the study period. Laaksi said larger clinical trials looking at different doses of vitamin D are still needed before the vitamin can be recommended for curbing the risk of respiratory infections. Which description of Dr. Ilkka Laaksi’s study is wrong

A. The recruits in Laaksi’s team were randomly assigned into two groups.
B. Respiratory infections peak from October to March.
C. Men missed two days of duty in the placebo group.
D. The difference of the result was not significant in statistical terms.

17.Many work-at-home morns try their hands at direct selling as a way to pick up some cash while still spending time with their kids. A direct sales business can, indeed, provide a morn the best of both world—flexible hours and income. However, be careful. Direct sales can be a front for work at home scams, but more than that, you will want to carefully consider whether you will like direct sales. After that, look into some of the business issues outlined below and learn the direct sales industry’s terminology before you make any commitments. First and foremost, do you love the product If the answer is not an unqualified yes, look for a different product for your direct sales business. There are so many choices in direct sales businesses that you should be able to find a product you can get excited about. The beauty of a direct sales business is that this is an industry with fairly low start-up costs. Typically you must buy a sales kit, which can often be less than $100. You may also need to purchase sales aids, business cards, etc. But relative to many other home businesses, costs are low. However, if there are training costs and/or unexplained fees, beware; this could be the sign of a scam. And just like any other business, your direct sales business will have ongoing costs. Expect to pay for gasoline, cell phone and internet charges, paper and toner, gifts for clients, interest on items purchased on credit, childcare costs etc. Plus you have to pay for inventory. Yes, you will likely make back what you invest in inventory, but be sure you have adequate cash flow to cover this investment. How much inventory will you have to sell to make a profit And is the profit enough to cover the time and money you have invested in your direct sales business You may not have a clear idea of the amount of time your business requires up front, so the value of your time may have to be evaluated as you go. But you should have a clear idea on the costs, including any commissions taken by your upline, before you take the plunge. Reputable direct sales companies will buy back 100 percent of unsold, marketable inventory within the first year of purchase at 90 percent of what you paid, if you decide to leave the company. Read the fine print and be sure the company you are signing on with does this. Also be sure your inventory remains marketable. If it is edible, be sure it has not expired. What should work-at-home morns consider in starting up their direct selling business

A. To calculate how long the business can last.
B. To expect whether to buy the inventory on credit.
C. To consider who will take care of their children.
D. To be sure to have enough cash flow to cover the business.

18.If you can’t get a dose of sunshine then a daily vitamin D supplement could help keep colds away during winter, according to a small Finnish study. Researchers have been interested in whether the vitamin might play a role in people’s susceptibility to colds, flu and other respiratory (呼吸的) infections as these illnesses rise during winter when people get little exposure to sunlight. The body naturally synthesizes vitamin D when the skin is exposed to sunlight. Researcher Dr. Ilkka Laaksi of the University of Tampere in Finland said some past studies found people with relatively lower vitamin D levels in their blood tended to have higher rates of respiratory infections than those with higher levels of the vitamin. Laaksi said along with that evidence, recent lab research had shown that vitamin D may play an important role in the body’s immune defenses against respiratory virus or bacteria. "However there is a lack of clinical studies of the effect of vitamin D supplementation for preventing respiratory infections," he told Reuters Health. For the latest study, Laaksi’s team randomly assigned 164 male military recruits to take either 400 international units (IU) of vitamin D or inactive placebo(安慰剂) pills every day for six months from October to March, the months when people’s vitamin D stores typically decline and when respiratory infections peak. After six months, the researchers found no clear difference between the two groups in the average number of days missed from duty due to a respiratory infection which included bronchitis, pneumonia, ear infections and sore throat. On average, men who took vitamin D missed about two days from duty because of a respiratory infection, compared with three days in the placebo group. That difference was not significant in statistical terms. But men in the vitamin D group were more likely to have no days missed from work due to a respiratory illness. Overall, 51 percent remained "healthy" throughout the study compared to 36 percent of the placebo group, the researchers reported in the Journal of Infectious Diseases. Laaksi said the findings offer some evidence of a benefit from vitamin D against respiratory infections but the extent of the benefit was not clear. While recruits in the vitamin group were more likely to have no days missed from duty, they were no less likely to report having cold-like symptoms at some point during the study period. Laaksi said larger clinical trials looking at different doses of vitamin D are still needed before the vitamin can be recommended for curbing the risk of respiratory infections. Recruits in the Vitamin D group ______.

A. got more benefits than the placebo group
B. did not develop cold-like symptoms
C. missed about two days from duty because of a respiratory infection on average
D. did not miss duty from work due to a respiratory illness

19.Many work-at-home morns try their hands at direct selling as a way to pick up some cash while still spending time with their kids. A direct sales business can, indeed, provide a morn the best of both world—flexible hours and income. However, be careful. Direct sales can be a front for work at home scams, but more than that, you will want to carefully consider whether you will like direct sales. After that, look into some of the business issues outlined below and learn the direct sales industry’s terminology before you make any commitments. First and foremost, do you love the product If the answer is not an unqualified yes, look for a different product for your direct sales business. There are so many choices in direct sales businesses that you should be able to find a product you can get excited about. The beauty of a direct sales business is that this is an industry with fairly low start-up costs. Typically you must buy a sales kit, which can often be less than $100. You may also need to purchase sales aids, business cards, etc. But relative to many other home businesses, costs are low. However, if there are training costs and/or unexplained fees, beware; this could be the sign of a scam. And just like any other business, your direct sales business will have ongoing costs. Expect to pay for gasoline, cell phone and internet charges, paper and toner, gifts for clients, interest on items purchased on credit, childcare costs etc. Plus you have to pay for inventory. Yes, you will likely make back what you invest in inventory, but be sure you have adequate cash flow to cover this investment. How much inventory will you have to sell to make a profit And is the profit enough to cover the time and money you have invested in your direct sales business You may not have a clear idea of the amount of time your business requires up front, so the value of your time may have to be evaluated as you go. But you should have a clear idea on the costs, including any commissions taken by your upline, before you take the plunge. Reputable direct sales companies will buy back 100 percent of unsold, marketable inventory within the first year of purchase at 90 percent of what you paid, if you decide to leave the company. Read the fine print and be sure the company you are signing on with does this. Also be sure your inventory remains marketable. If it is edible, be sure it has not expired. What advice is given to the work-at-home morns about the unsold inventory

A. To choose a third party for the validity of the contract.
B. To be sure about the product quality.
C. To read carefully about the return policy for unsold inventory.
D. To invest only in some eatable products.

20.If you can’t get a dose of sunshine then a daily vitamin D supplement could help keep colds away during winter, according to a small Finnish study. Researchers have been interested in whether the vitamin might play a role in people’s susceptibility to colds, flu and other respiratory (呼吸的) infections as these illnesses rise during winter when people get little exposure to sunlight. The body naturally synthesizes vitamin D when the skin is exposed to sunlight. Researcher Dr. Ilkka Laaksi of the University of Tampere in Finland said some past studies found people with relatively lower vitamin D levels in their blood tended to have higher rates of respiratory infections than those with higher levels of the vitamin. Laaksi said along with that evidence, recent lab research had shown that vitamin D may play an important role in the body’s immune defenses against respiratory virus or bacteria. "However there is a lack of clinical studies of the effect of vitamin D supplementation for preventing respiratory infections," he told Reuters Health. For the latest study, Laaksi’s team randomly assigned 164 male military recruits to take either 400 international units (IU) of vitamin D or inactive placebo(安慰剂) pills every day for six months from October to March, the months when people’s vitamin D stores typically decline and when respiratory infections peak. After six months, the researchers found no clear difference between the two groups in the average number of days missed from duty due to a respiratory infection which included bronchitis, pneumonia, ear infections and sore throat. On average, men who took vitamin D missed about two days from duty because of a respiratory infection, compared with three days in the placebo group. That difference was not significant in statistical terms. But men in the vitamin D group were more likely to have no days missed from work due to a respiratory illness. Overall, 51 percent remained "healthy" throughout the study compared to 36 percent of the placebo group, the researchers reported in the Journal of Infectious Diseases. Laaksi said the findings offer some evidence of a benefit from vitamin D against respiratory infections but the extent of the benefit was not clear. While recruits in the vitamin group were more likely to have no days missed from duty, they were no less likely to report having cold-like symptoms at some point during the study period. Laaksi said larger clinical trials looking at different doses of vitamin D are still needed before the vitamin can be recommended for curbing the risk of respiratory infections. The findings of the research indicate that ______.

A. vitamin D plays an important role in people’s health
B. benefits from vitamin D against respiratory infections are still not clear
C. there’s still doubt about whether vitamin D works for preventing respiratory infections
D. researchers cannot recommend the doses for curbing the risk of respiratory infections

21.Many work-at-home morns try their hands at direct selling as a way to pick up some cash while still spending time with their kids. A direct sales business can, indeed, provide a morn the best of both world—flexible hours and income. However, be careful. Direct sales can be a front for work at home scams, but more than that, you will want to carefully consider whether you will like direct sales. After that, look into some of the business issues outlined below and learn the direct sales industry’s terminology before you make any commitments. First and foremost, do you love the product If the answer is not an unqualified yes, look for a different product for your direct sales business. There are so many choices in direct sales businesses that you should be able to find a product you can get excited about. The beauty of a direct sales business is that this is an industry with fairly low start-up costs. Typically you must buy a sales kit, which can often be less than $100. You may also need to purchase sales aids, business cards, etc. But relative to many other home businesses, costs are low. However, if there are training costs and/or unexplained fees, beware; this could be the sign of a scam. And just like any other business, your direct sales business will have ongoing costs. Expect to pay for gasoline, cell phone and internet charges, paper and toner, gifts for clients, interest on items purchased on credit, childcare costs etc. Plus you have to pay for inventory. Yes, you will likely make back what you invest in inventory, but be sure you have adequate cash flow to cover this investment. How much inventory will you have to sell to make a profit And is the profit enough to cover the time and money you have invested in your direct sales business You may not have a clear idea of the amount of time your business requires up front, so the value of your time may have to be evaluated as you go. But you should have a clear idea on the costs, including any commissions taken by your upline, before you take the plunge. Reputable direct sales companies will buy back 100 percent of unsold, marketable inventory within the first year of purchase at 90 percent of what you paid, if you decide to leave the company. Read the fine print and be sure the company you are signing on with does this. Also be sure your inventory remains marketable. If it is edible, be sure it has not expired. Which of the following information is not mentioned in the passage

A. Preparing some start-up fund for the direct sales business.
B. Looking for a reputable direct sales company according to its recruitment.
C. Choosing a suitable product item.
D. Making sure to have enough cash flow.

42.While it can’t yet be said that every mouthful of food has been changed through genetic engineering, it is likely that almost every American has had a mouthful of engineered food. Take the soybean, for example. About 55 percent of last year’s crop was genetically engineered in some fashion, reports the American Soybean Association. And though few Americans sit down to a plate of soybeans for dinner, these soybeans arrive through the back door as an additive to scores of foods like cooking oils, salad dressings, coffee creamers, beer, cereals and candy. America is on the verge of a second green revolution. The first tripled world food output over the course of a mere three decades during the late 20th century. Scientists boosted crop yields by crossbreeding (杂交) related plants that add desirable traits. Then farmers added fertilizer, pesticide, and irrigation in order to make the high-yield crops thrive. Now that those gains are leveling off, scientists are looking to biotechnology to increase food production even more. This time, instead of breeding plants with their closest relatives, scientists are inserting genes. For example, genes from flounders can help ordinary plants like tomatoes and strawberries fight the cold. Researchers are also inserting bacterial genes into corn and soybean plants to better protect them from insects or render them immune to certain herbicides The technology has enormous potential. The application of biotechnology is going to produce a set of possibilities that we simply cannot conceive of, even in our most imaginative flights of fancy. For farmers, crops engineered with genes that resist cold, drought, or other adverse weather conditions can boost crop yields with less money and effort. For consumers, that could mean cheaper food. Such crops would also help feed and better nourish people in developing nations, such as drought-ridden Africa. But as these crops begin infiltrating (渗透) our food supply, environmental and consumer groups have begun to question whether potential risks to the environment and human health have been adequately studied. Last year, for example, biologists for the first time found evidence suggesting that planting genetically modified corn in open fields may kill butterflies who feed on the corn’s pollen. Scientists are also questioning whether foods with a gene inserted to improve one area of their performance could prove detrimental in another: For one thing, the genes might cause allergic reactions in people who never had a reaction to that food before. The example of the soybean the author takes is to prove that ______.

A. Americans are fond of soybeans
B. every mouthful of soybean has been changed by genetic engineering
C. America is on the verge of a second green revolution
D. soybean is treated as an additive to scores of foods

45.This leaves obesity researchers struggling with the questions of why we eat a lot of fat when we know it makes us fat. What’s more, overweight is on the rise, even as popular culture continues to celebrate slimness, to the point of embracing emaciated fashion models as standards of female beauty. A couple of different societal forces are pushing Americans toward overweight, even though we value slenderness, says Peter Stearns, a social historian and dean of the College of Humanities and Social Sciences at Carnegie Mellon University. First, broad changes have conspired to make many adults feel stressed at home and work, from corporate downsizing to being a single parent. "A number of people are saying, ’I do accept the slimness values, I know I’m violating them, but my life is hard enough,’" Stearns says. "They eat as a form of release. People are eating more because it’s a form of gratification." Second, Americans live in the only country in the world where pie-eating contests are old-fashioned fun, and all-you-can-eat restaurants dot the landscape, Stearns says. "We have a long national tradition of believing eating is a sign of personal, societal, and family well-being," he says. "There’s no society that compares to ours in the importance and frequency of snacking. We show our prosperity through food; we give ourselves lifts by nibbling." Many obesity experts believe that cultural standards of slenderness are primarily embraced by white Americans, to whom slimness becomes more important with increasing income. Yet blacks, particularly black women, don’t necessarily buy into the slim-is-better philosophy. "African- American women were traditionally more important to the family—they were more likely to work," Stearns says. "They had stature in the family, and didn’t have to resort to slimness to define their sexuality." If there is greater acceptance of overweight among black women, it’s unclear whether it promotes their higher-than-average rates of overweight or results from them. One thing is certain: this high prevalence of overweight among blacks is not genetic, says Cross of Columbia University. Obesity is not an issue for blacks native to Africa, she says. "But in first-generation African immigrants to the U.S., you see massive increases in obesity." The low household incomes of many blacks living in the U.S. may play a major role in their high levels of overweight. "If you’re poor, you learn to eat foods that yield the greatest amount of energy for the lowest cost—that’s fat," says Cornell University’s Levitsky. "Poor people learn to eat foods that allow them to survive under conditions of scarcity.\ What questions have been troubling obesity researchers in the United States

A. People are over-fussy about the overweight phenomenon.
B. People are crazy about keeping slender to the point of boniness.
C. People don’t like eating fat since they are overweight.
D. People still eat much fat even though they know it makes them fat.

48.While it can’t yet be said that every mouthful of food has been changed through genetic engineering, it is likely that almost every American has had a mouthful of engineered food. Take the soybean, for example. About 55 percent of last year’s crop was genetically engineered in some fashion, reports the American Soybean Association. And though few Americans sit down to a plate of soybeans for dinner, these soybeans arrive through the back door as an additive to scores of foods like cooking oils, salad dressings, coffee creamers, beer, cereals and candy. America is on the verge of a second green revolution. The first tripled world food output over the course of a mere three decades during the late 20th century. Scientists boosted crop yields by crossbreeding (杂交) related plants that add desirable traits. Then farmers added fertilizer, pesticide, and irrigation in order to make the high-yield crops thrive. Now that those gains are leveling off, scientists are looking to biotechnology to increase food production even more. This time, instead of breeding plants with their closest relatives, scientists are inserting genes. For example, genes from flounders can help ordinary plants like tomatoes and strawberries fight the cold. Researchers are also inserting bacterial genes into corn and soybean plants to better protect them from insects or render them immune to certain herbicides The technology has enormous potential. The application of biotechnology is going to produce a set of possibilities that we simply cannot conceive of, even in our most imaginative flights of fancy. For farmers, crops engineered with genes that resist cold, drought, or other adverse weather conditions can boost crop yields with less money and effort. For consumers, that could mean cheaper food. Such crops would also help feed and better nourish people in developing nations, such as drought-ridden Africa. But as these crops begin infiltrating (渗透) our food supply, environmental and consumer groups have begun to question whether potential risks to the environment and human health have been adequately studied. Last year, for example, biologists for the first time found evidence suggesting that planting genetically modified corn in open fields may kill butterflies who feed on the corn’s pollen. Scientists are also questioning whether foods with a gene inserted to improve one area of their performance could prove detrimental in another: For one thing, the genes might cause allergic reactions in people who never had a reaction to that food before. What is the main purpose of the first green revolution in America

A. To crossbreed the related plants.
B. To add the desirable traits to the plants.
C. To realize the green revolution in three decades.
D. To make the high-yield crops thrive.

50.This leaves obesity researchers struggling with the questions of why we eat a lot of fat when we know it makes us fat. What’s more, overweight is on the rise, even as popular culture continues to celebrate slimness, to the point of embracing emaciated fashion models as standards of female beauty. A couple of different societal forces are pushing Americans toward overweight, even though we value slenderness, says Peter Stearns, a social historian and dean of the College of Humanities and Social Sciences at Carnegie Mellon University. First, broad changes have conspired to make many adults feel stressed at home and work, from corporate downsizing to being a single parent. "A number of people are saying, ’I do accept the slimness values, I know I’m violating them, but my life is hard enough,’" Stearns says. "They eat as a form of release. People are eating more because it’s a form of gratification." Second, Americans live in the only country in the world where pie-eating contests are old-fashioned fun, and all-you-can-eat restaurants dot the landscape, Stearns says. "We have a long national tradition of believing eating is a sign of personal, societal, and family well-being," he says. "There’s no society that compares to ours in the importance and frequency of snacking. We show our prosperity through food; we give ourselves lifts by nibbling." Many obesity experts believe that cultural standards of slenderness are primarily embraced by white Americans, to whom slimness becomes more important with increasing income. Yet blacks, particularly black women, don’t necessarily buy into the slim-is-better philosophy. "African- American women were traditionally more important to the family—they were more likely to work," Stearns says. "They had stature in the family, and didn’t have to resort to slimness to define their sexuality." If there is greater acceptance of overweight among black women, it’s unclear whether it promotes their higher-than-average rates of overweight or results from them. One thing is certain: this high prevalence of overweight among blacks is not genetic, says Cross of Columbia University. Obesity is not an issue for blacks native to Africa, she says. "But in first-generation African immigrants to the U.S., you see massive increases in obesity." The low household incomes of many blacks living in the U.S. may play a major role in their high levels of overweight. "If you’re poor, you learn to eat foods that yield the greatest amount of energy for the lowest cost—that’s fat," says Cornell University’s Levitsky. "Poor people learn to eat foods that allow them to survive under conditions of scarcity.\ Why do some Americans tend to become overweight according to the passage

A. Because eating much food can relieve them from the stress from work and family.
B. Because the food is cheaper than anywhere in the world.
C. Because the downsizing drives them to the corner.
D. Because they take pride in overweight.

试卷来源:易哈佛教育

总分:100分

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