易哈佛 \ 大学英语 \ 2020年大学英语考试真题卷

2020年大学英语考试真题卷

2020年大学英语考试真题卷

  • 本卷共分为1大题50小题,作答时间为180分钟,总分100分,60分及格。
  • 试卷来源:易哈佛

一、单项选择题(共50题,每题2分。每题的备选项中,只有一个最符合题意)

1.Although Beethoven could sit down and make up music easily, his really great compositions did not come easily at all. They cost him a great deal of hard work. We know now often he rewrote and corrected his work because his notebooks are still kept in museums and libraries. He always found it hard to satisfy himself. When he was 28, the worst difficulty of all came to him. He began to notice a strange humming in his ears. At first he paid little attention, but it grew worse, and at last he consulted doctors. They gave him the worst news any musician can hear: he was gradually going deaf. Beethoven was in despair, he was sure that he was going to die. He went away to the country, to a place called Heiligenstadt, and from there he wrote a long farewell letter to his brothers. In this letter he told them how depressed and lonely his deafness had made him. "It was impossible for me to ask men to speak louder or shout, for I am cleat," he wrote. "How could I possibly admit an infirmity (残废) in the one sense (hearing) which should have been more perfect in me than in others... I must live like an exile." He longed to die, and said to death, "Come when you will. I shall meet you bravely." In fact, Beethoven did something braver than dying. He gathered his courage and went on writing music, though he could hear what he wrote only more and more faintly. He wrote his best music, the music we remember him for, after he became deaf. The music he wrote was very different from any that had been composed before. Instead of the elegant and stately music that earlier musicians had written for their wealthy listeners, Beethoven wrote stormy, exciting, revolutionary music, which reminds us of his troubled and courageous life. He grew to admire courage more than anything, and he called one of his symphonies the Eroica or Heroic Symphony to celebrate the memory of a great man. Describing the dramatic opening notes of his famous Fifth Symphony, he said, "Thus fate knocks on the door." In time Beethoven went completely deaf, He was lonely and often unhappy, but in spite of this, he often wrote joyful music. In his last symphony, the Ninth, a choir sings a wonderful Hymn of Joy. Because of his courage and determination to overcome his terrible disaster, his music has given joy and inspiration to millions of people. Which of these words best describes Beethoven’s music when his hearing began to fail [A] Stately. [C] Elegant. [B] Turbulent. [D] Loud.

2.Google Closes In on DoubleClick Deal Score one for Google. The Federal Trade Commission ruled Dee. 20 that it would not block Google’s (GOOG) proposed$3.1 billion acquisition of leading online ad-serving and tracking firm DoubleClick. The 4-1 decision in Google’s favor marked a major win for the Web search Goliath, which is battling to expand its considerable share of the $30 billion online advertising market beyond tiny text ads related to Web queries. But Googie can’t claim victory yet. The European Union’s antitrust commission still needs to sign off on the merger before Google can begin incorporating DoubleClick into its business. That may not happen without Google agreeing to certain conditions, if at all. Already, the EU has raised concerns about its impact on consumer privacy. "This is round one of a two-round battle," says Jeff Chester, executive director of the Center for Digital Democracy (CDD), a nonprofit public interest group that opposed the merger. "The EU can kill the deal, there is no question about it." The FTC said in its decision that it could only consider privacy concerns as they relate to marketplace competition. But it did issue a separate statement with some recommendations concerning online customer data collection and privacy.The Personal Business of Ad Placement Google has faced strong opposition to its online advertising ambitions since it announced plans to acquire DoubleCliek in April (BusinessWeek.com, 4/14/07 ). Competitors for online ad dollars, such as Microsoft (MSFT), argue the merger will enable Google to effectively control the market. Ads placed beside Web search results account for more than 40% of the dollars spent online, and Google controls more than two-thirds of that market, according to eMarketer. Much of the remaining online ad dollars go to display ads, the poster-like banners--DoubleClick’s forte--that run on most Web sites. Online ads are priced based on how well they are matched to the target consumer. Google collects data on searches performed by individual computers, and DoubleClick records information about the computers that visit the Web pages in its network. The more data they collect, the better they can match a marketer’s ad to a potentially interested customer, and the higher the premium they can charge on the ad. But consumer groups see the issue another way: the more data collected, the higher the risk of violating someone’s privacy. For the past eight months, groups voiced concerns to the FTC that a combined Google/ DoubleClick would aggregate too much information about what Web surfers do online, putting consumers at risk. In the end, the majority of the commissioners decided DoubleClick does not control enough of the display-ad market to give Google an unfair monopoly. "Competition among firms in this market is vigorous and will likely increase," the commission majority wrote in a statement.Increased Competition Recent announcements by Google’s chief competitors support this argument. On Dec. 19, Microsoft—one of the few to challenge Google’s merger before the FTC--announced a $500 million, five-year advertising deal to place ads on Viacom’s (VIA) network of popular Web sites, including MTV.com. Microsoft will also be able to sell ad space on Viacom pages that are not in a premium position, based on the data it has about visitors to Viacom’s sites. Microsoft also recently solidified multiyear advertising agreements with Facebook, the second most popular social network in the U.S., after News Corp.’s (NWS) MySpace, and well-trafficked social news site Digg (BusinessWeek.com, 9/19/07 ). "When Microsoft comes into a room and talks about anticompetitive behavior and threats to privacy, no one can take them seriously," says the CDD’s Chester. It also didn’t help Google opponents that many of the company’s competitors recently struck agreements to buy ad networks themselves, similar to Google’s proposed deal with DoubleClick. Microsoft bought DoubleClick competitor a Quantive for $6 billion in May (BusinessWeek.com, 5/18/07). Yahoo! (YHOO) and Time Warner’s (TWX) AOL also scooped up ad-serving and targeting firms earlier this year. Meanwhile, independent players, such as Specific Media, have secured millions in funding to consolidate their operations with other smaller ad networks (Business Week.com, 11/1/07). In a statement on Google’s blog, Chief Legal Officer David Drummond applauded the ruling: "The FTC’s decision publicly affirms what we and numerous independent analysts have been saying for months, our acquisition does not threaten competition in what is a robust, innovative, and quickly evolving online advertising space."Privacy Violation But will it threaten Web users The final answer may rest with the European Commission. In November the commission delayed a decision on the deal (BusinessWeek.com, 11/14/07 ), saying it was more complicated than m

4.Media mogul (显要人物) Ted Turner yesterday sold more than half of his AOL Time Warner Inc. holdings for about$780 million, a move that reflects his efforts to slash his financial stake in the media giant. The best title for this passage could be ______. [A] Turner makes a series of new decisions. [C] Turner comes down from his peak in business [B] Turner shows his anger at AOL Time Warner [D] Turner slashes his financial stake in AOL Time Warner

After the close of regular trading yesterday, Turner sold a block of 60 million shares to Goldman Sachs & Co. for $13.07 per share, or 31 cents below the stock’s closing price yesterday. Goldman was said by Wall Street sources to be offering the stock to major investors for $13.15.
An outspoken critic of the corporation, Turner remains AOL Time Warner’s largest individual shareholder, with 45 million shares, and a member of its board of directors. A spokeswoman for Turner referred questions to AOL Time Warner.At his peak Turner owned about 130 million shares, but he lost billions of dollars in wealth and grew bitter after the stock plunged following the merger of America Online and Time Warner in January 2001.
Turner, who initially supported the merger, later expressed outrage over revelations that America Online had manipulated its financial results. The Securities and Exchange Commission is investigating AOL, and the corporation has acknowledged discovering tens of millions of dollars of overstated revenue.
Turner resigned as vice chairman earlier this year and has been spending less of his time on AOL Time Warner matters. He stepped down after achieving his goal of pressuring the founder of America Online —Steve Case —to resign as the corporation’s chairman. Case said he was giving up the post to avoid a bruising public battle for reelection at next week’s annual meeting.
In the effort to oust Case, Turner teamed up with Gordon Crawford, the senior media portfolio manager at Capital Research & Management, the largest institutional shareholder in AOL Time Warner. Capital Research has indicated it will vote against Case’s election to remain on the board of directors next week--a position that analysts said should not affect the outcome. Turner, meanwhile, has said he will support the management slate (候选人) that includes Case and will make Richard D. Parsons the company’s chairman and chief executive.
Turner, a visionary who started Cable News Networ

6.Although Beethoven could sit down and make up music easily, his really great compositions did not come easily at all. They cost him a great deal of hard work. We know now often he rewrote and corrected his work because his notebooks are still kept in museums and libraries. He always found it hard to satisfy himself. When he was 28, the worst difficulty of all came to him. He began to notice a strange humming in his ears. At first he paid little attention, but it grew worse, and at last he consulted doctors. They gave him the worst news any musician can hear: he was gradually going deaf. Beethoven was in despair, he was sure that he was going to die. He went away to the country, to a place called Heiligenstadt, and from there he wrote a long farewell letter to his brothers. In this letter he told them how depressed and lonely his deafness had made him. "It was impossible for me to ask men to speak louder or shout, for I am cleat," he wrote. "How could I possibly admit an infirmity (残废) in the one sense (hearing) which should have been more perfect in me than in others... I must live like an exile." He longed to die, and said to death, "Come when you will. I shall meet you bravely." In fact, Beethoven did something braver than dying. He gathered his courage and went on writing music, though he could hear what he wrote only more and more faintly. He wrote his best music, the music we remember him for, after he became deaf. The music he wrote was very different from any that had been composed before. Instead of the elegant and stately music that earlier musicians had written for their wealthy listeners, Beethoven wrote stormy, exciting, revolutionary music, which reminds us of his troubled and courageous life. He grew to admire courage more than anything, and he called one of his symphonies the Eroica or Heroic Symphony to celebrate the memory of a great man. Describing the dramatic opening notes of his famous Fifth Symphony, he said, "Thus fate knocks on the door." In time Beethoven went completely deaf, He was lonely and often unhappy, but in spite of this, he often wrote joyful music. In his last symphony, the Ninth, a choir sings a wonderful Hymn of Joy. Because of his courage and determination to overcome his terrible disaster, his music has given joy and inspiration to millions of people. Which of the following titles best sums up the whole passage [A] The story of Beethoven’s life. [C] The music of Beethoven. [B] Beethoven becomes deaf. [D] Beethoven’s courageous triumph over tragedy.

7.Questions 11 to 18 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

A.There would be some problems for the man to secure a ticket.
B.There would be no problem for the man to secure a ticket.
C.There might be some extra tickets available for the man.
D.The man should book the ticket even earlier.

23.

A.Bill repaired the tire himself.
B.Bill will have his bicycle fixed.
C.Bill was silly to have wasted his money.
D.Bill now wrote a check for the bill.

24.

{{B}}Passage 1
Questions 6 and 7 are based on the passage you have just heard.{{/B}}

A.A plane.
B.A train.
C.A balloon.
D.A horse.

25.

{{B}}Passage 2
Questions 8 to 10 are based on the passage you have just heard.{{/B}}

A.Our body.
B.Our senses.
C.The speed.
D.The plane.

26.

{{B}}Passage 1
Questions 6 and 7 are based on the passage you have just heard.{{/B}}

A.The monster’s angry voice.
B.The villagers were afraid.
C.The horse’s voice.
D.The hot air escaped through the cuts in skin.

27.

A.How Richard traveled.
B.Where Richard went.
C.When Richard will go.
D.How much Richard spent.

28.

{{B}}Passage 2
Questions 8 to 10 are based on the passage you have just heard.{{/B}}

A.For only a short time.
B.For a long time.
C.For all our life.
D.For half a day.

29.

A.The man can sleep in the office.
B.She can have someone to repair the air-conditioner.
C.She can work without air conditioning.
D.The man can do his work elsewhere.

30.

{{B}}Passage 2
Questions 8 to 10 are based on the passage you have just heard.{{/B}}

A.A kind of motion.
B.A steady speed.
C.The motion of a plane.
D.An increase in speed.

31.
{{B}}Passage 1{{/B}}

Studies of whales in captivity (囚禁;被拘留的状态) have taught us much about their physiology (生理学) as well as their complex social behavior. Their learning and problem-solving skills, together with their curiosity and often eager interactions with humans, have led some scientists to believe that whales possess a high level of intelligence.
The large brains of whales also suggest a high intelligence. The sperm whale (抹香鲸)’s brain is considerably larger than an elephant’s, brain and six times the size of a human brain. However, relative to the rest of the body, a sperm whale’s brain is only about 0.02 percent of its body weight, while a human brain is about 2 percent. These animals tend to rely on hearing more than vision, which explains why the visual centers of their brains are smaller proportionally than those in humans. Another feature is the degree of folding of the upper surface of the brain. This folding increases the surface area and has been observed in more intelligent animals. Whale brains generally show as much or more folding area as is seen in humans.
Complex behavior may reveal more about whale intelligence than brain size. Perhaps the most interesting indications of whale intelligence came with the discovery in the 1970s of whale singing. Singing is most common on the winter mating grounds, for example in the Caribbean and Hawaii.
There is no solid evidence that the songs encode language in an intellectual sense. The whale songs may be simply longer versions of the mating songs also noted in birds and amphibians (两栖动物).
The best title for this passage would be ______ .

A.Studies of Whales in Captivity
B.Whale’s Physiology and Social Behavior
C.Study of Whales’ Intelligence
D.Whale

32.{{B}}Passage 2{{/B}}

Placing a satellite into orbit requires a tremendous amount of energy, which is achieved from multistage rockets burning chemical fuels.
The first stage of a multistage rocket consists of rocket engines that provide a huge amount of force. The first stage lifts the entire launch vehicle--with its load of fuel, the rocket body, and the satellite--off the launch pad (发射台) and into the first part of the flight. After its engines use all their fuel, the first stage portion of the rocket separates from the rest of the launch vehicle and falls to the earth.
The second stage then ignites, providing the energy necessary to lift the satellite into orbit. It, too, then separates from the satellite and any remaining rocket stages.
The rest of the launch depends on the satellite’s mission. And a third rocket stage provides the energy to lift the satellite to its final orbital altitude. After the satellite has reached the final altitude, another rocket engine fires and gives the satellite a circular orbit. All rocket-engine burns occur at a precise moment and last for a precise amount of time so that the satellite achieves its proper position in space.
In 1990 the United States began launching some satellites from aircraft flying at high altitudes. This method still requires a rocket-powered launch vehicle, but because the vehicle does not have to overcome friction with the thick atmosphere found at low altitudes, much less fuel is needed. However, the size of the rocket is limited by the size and strength of the aircraft, so only smaller satellites can be launched this way.
What is the main idea about the passage

A.Placing a satellite into orbit.
B.Multistage rockets.
C.Launching some satellites from aircraft.
D.Rocket launching.

33.

A.Her grandmother would like some pizza.
B.Her grandmother made better pizzas.
C.This is very good pizza.
D.This is too much pizza.

34.{{B}}Passage 3{{/B}}

In earlier centuries, nursing care was usually provided by volunteers who had little or no training--most commonly men and women of various religious orders. Toward the end of the 18th century nursing was considered an unsuitable occupation for "proper" young women, undoubtedly due to the fact that hospitals in those days were dirty places where patients usually died. As a result, those who provided nursing care were commonly persons who could not find work elsewhere.
Modern nursing began in the mid-19th century with the appearance of the Nightingale training schools for nurses. In the United States, the Spanish-American War and, later, World War I established the need for more nurses in both military and civilian life. As a result, nursing schools increased their enrollments, and several new programs were developed. In 1920 a study recommended that schools of nursing be independent of hospitals and that students no longer be exploited as cheap labor. Following this, several university schools of nursing were opened. During the depression of the 1930s, many nurses were unemployed, and the number of schools declined. World War II, however, brought about another increased demand for nurses. Since the end of World War II, technological advances in medicine and health have required nurses to become knowledgeable about sophisticated equipment, to learn about an increasing number of medications, and to design nursing care appropriate for the health care delivery system during a period of rapid change.
Which of the following is the most appropriate title for this passage

A.Nursing History
B.Development of Nursing
C.Nurses
D.Nursing

35.
{{B}}Passage 1{{/B}}

Studies of whales in captivity (囚禁;被拘留的状态) have taught us much about their physiology (生理学) as well as their complex social behavior. Their learning and problem-solving skills, together with their curiosity and often eager interactions with humans, have led some scientists to believe that whales possess a high level of intelligence.
The large brains of whales also suggest a high intelligence. The sperm whale (抹香鲸)’s brain is considerably larger than an elephant’s, brain and six times the size of a human brain. However, relative to the rest of the body, a sperm whale’s brain is only about 0.02 percent of its body weight, while a human brain is about 2 percent. These animals tend to rely on hearing more than vision, which explains why the visual centers of their brains are smaller proportionally than those in humans. Another feature is the degree of folding of the upper surface of the brain. This folding increases the surface area and has been observed in more intelligent animals. Whale brains generally show as much or more folding area as is seen in humans.
Complex behavior may reveal more about whale intelligence than brain size. Perhaps the most interesting indications of whale intelligence came with the discovery in the 1970s of whale singing. Singing is most common on the winter mating grounds, for example in the Caribbean and Hawaii.
There is no solid evidence that the songs encode language in an intellectual sense. The whale songs may be simply longer versions of the mating songs also noted in birds and amphibians (两栖动物).
Which of the following does not illustrate the intelligence about whale

A.Their learning and problem-solving skills, together with their curiosity and often eager interactions with humans.
B.The large brains of whales.
C.Complex behavior.
D.Relying on hearing.

36.

A.The team played football yesterday.
B.The team had better play once again.
C.The man was excited.
D.The man’s team is improving.

37.{{B}}Passage 3{{/B}}

In earlier centuries, nursing care was usually provided by volunteers who had little or no training--most commonly men and women of various religious orders. Toward the end of the 18th century nursing was considered an unsuitable occupation for "proper" young women, undoubtedly due to the fact that hospitals in those days were dirty places where patients usually died. As a result, those who provided nursing care were commonly persons who could not find work elsewhere.
Modern nursing began in the mid-19th century with the appearance of the Nightingale training schools for nurses. In the United States, the Spanish-American War and, later, World War I established the need for more nurses in both military and civilian life. As a result, nursing schools increased their enrollments, and several new programs were developed. In 1920 a study recommended that schools of nursing be independent of hospitals and that students no longer be exploited as cheap labor. Following this, several university schools of nursing were opened. During the depression of the 1930s, many nurses were unemployed, and the number of schools declined. World War II, however, brought about another increased demand for nurses. Since the end of World War II, technological advances in medicine and health have required nurses to become knowledgeable about sophisticated equipment, to learn about an increasing number of medications, and to design nursing care appropriate for the health care delivery system during a period of rapid change.
From the first paragraph, we know that nurses social status is very ______ .

A.high
B.intermediate
C.normal
D.low

38.{{B}}Passage 2{{/B}}

Placing a satellite into orbit requires a tremendous amount of energy, which is achieved from multistage rockets burning chemical fuels.
The first stage of a multistage rocket consists of rocket engines that provide a huge amount of force. The first stage lifts the entire launch vehicle--with its load of fuel, the rocket body, and the satellite--off the launch pad (发射台) and into the first part of the flight. After its engines use all their fuel, the first stage portion of the rocket separates from the rest of the launch vehicle and falls to the earth.
The second stage then ignites, providing the energy necessary to lift the satellite into orbit. It, too, then separates from the satellite and any remaining rocket stages.
The rest of the launch depends on the satellite’s mission. And a third rocket stage provides the energy to lift the satellite to its final orbital altitude. After the satellite has reached the final altitude, another rocket engine fires and gives the satellite a circular orbit. All rocket-engine burns occur at a precise moment and last for a precise amount of time so that the satellite achieves its proper position in space.
In 1990 the United States began launching some satellites from aircraft flying at high altitudes. This method still requires a rocket-powered launch vehicle, but because the vehicle does not have to overcome friction with the thick atmosphere found at low altitudes, much less fuel is needed. However, the size of the rocket is limited by the size and strength of the aircraft, so only smaller satellites can be launched this way.
According to the second paragraph, which of the following is NOT true

A.The first stage of a multistage rocket consists of rocket engines that provide a large amount of force.
B.The first stage lifts the entire launch vehicle off the launch pad and into the first part of the flight.
C.After its engines use up its fuel, the first stage part of the rocket separates from the rest of the launch vehicle and falls to the space.
D.The entire launch vehicle includes its load of fuel, the rocket body, and the satellite.

39.
{{B}}Passage 1{{/B}}

Studies of whales in captivity (囚禁;被拘留的状态) have taught us much about their physiology (生理学) as well as their complex social behavior. Their learning and problem-solving skills, together with their curiosity and often eager interactions with humans, have led some scientists to believe that whales possess a high level of intelligence.
The large brains of whales also suggest a high intelligence. The sperm whale (抹香鲸)’s brain is considerably larger than an elephant’s, brain and six times the size of a human brain. However, relative to the rest of the body, a sperm whale’s brain is only about 0.02 percent of its body weight, while a human brain is about 2 percent. These animals tend to rely on hearing more than vision, which explains why the visual centers of their brains are smaller proportionally than those in humans. Another feature is the degree of folding of the upper surface of the brain. This folding increases the surface area and has been observed in more intelligent animals. Whale brains generally show as much or more folding area as is seen in humans.
Complex behavior may reveal more about whale intelligence than brain size. Perhaps the most interesting indications of whale intelligence came with the discovery in the 1970s of whale singing. Singing is most common on the winter mating grounds, for example in the Caribbean and Hawaii.
There is no solid evidence that the songs encode language in an intellectual sense. The whale songs may be simply longer versions of the mating songs also noted in birds and amphibians (两栖动物).
If a sperm whale’s weight is thirty tons, the size of a human will be ______ kilogram.

A.210
B.125
C.100
D.75

40.{{B}}Passage 2{{/B}}

Placing a satellite into orbit requires a tremendous amount of energy, which is achieved from multistage rockets burning chemical fuels.
The first stage of a multistage rocket consists of rocket engines that provide a huge amount of force. The first stage lifts the entire launch vehicle--with its load of fuel, the rocket body, and the satellite--off the launch pad (发射台) and into the first part of the flight. After its engines use all their fuel, the first stage portion of the rocket separates from the rest of the launch vehicle and falls to the earth.
The second stage then ignites, providing the energy necessary to lift the satellite into orbit. It, too, then separates from the satellite and any remaining rocket stages.
The rest of the launch depends on the satellite’s mission. And a third rocket stage provides the energy to lift the satellite to its final orbital altitude. After the satellite has reached the final altitude, another rocket engine fires and gives the satellite a circular orbit. All rocket-engine burns occur at a precise moment and last for a precise amount of time so that the satellite achieves its proper position in space.
In 1990 the United States began launching some satellites from aircraft flying at high altitudes. This method still requires a rocket-powered launch vehicle, but because the vehicle does not have to overcome friction with the thick atmosphere found at low altitudes, much less fuel is needed. However, the size of the rocket is limited by the size and strength of the aircraft, so only smaller satellites can be launched this way.
In the sentence "The second stage then ignites, providing the energy necessary to lift the satellite into orbit.", "ignites" means ______ .

A.starts
B.blasts off
C.departs
D.fires

41.
{{B}}Passage 1{{/B}}

Studies of whales in captivity (囚禁;被拘留的状态) have taught us much about their physiology (生理学) as well as their complex social behavior. Their learning and problem-solving skills, together with their curiosity and often eager interactions with humans, have led some scientists to believe that whales possess a high level of intelligence.
The large brains of whales also suggest a high intelligence. The sperm whale (抹香鲸)’s brain is considerably larger than an elephant’s, brain and six times the size of a human brain. However, relative to the rest of the body, a sperm whale’s brain is only about 0.02 percent of its body weight, while a human brain is about 2 percent. These animals tend to rely on hearing more than vision, which explains why the visual centers of their brains are smaller proportionally than those in humans. Another feature is the degree of folding of the upper surface of the brain. This folding increases the surface area and has been observed in more intelligent animals. Whale brains generally show as much or more folding area as is seen in humans.
Complex behavior may reveal more about whale intelligence than brain size. Perhaps the most interesting indications of whale intelligence came with the discovery in the 1970s of whale singing. Singing is most common on the winter mating grounds, for example in the Caribbean and Hawaii.
There is no solid evidence that the songs encode language in an intellectual sense. The whale songs may be simply longer versions of the mating songs also noted in birds and amphibians (两栖动物).
The sperm whale’s visual centers of their brains are smaller proportionally than those in humans, this can explain why ______ .

A.their eyesight is better than hearing
B.whale brains generally show as much or more folding area as is seen in humans
C.complex behavior may reveal more about whale intelligence than brain size
D.this folding increases the surface area and has been observed in more intelligent animals

42.{{B}}Passage 3{{/B}}

In earlier centuries, nursing care was usually provided by volunteers who had little or no training--most commonly men and women of various religious orders. Toward the end of the 18th century nursing was considered an unsuitable occupation for "proper" young women, undoubtedly due to the fact that hospitals in those days were dirty places where patients usually died. As a result, those who provided nursing care were commonly persons who could not find work elsewhere.
Modern nursing began in the mid-19th century with the appearance of the Nightingale training schools for nurses. In the United States, the Spanish-American War and, later, World War I established the need for more nurses in both military and civilian life. As a result, nursing schools increased their enrollments, and several new programs were developed. In 1920 a study recommended that schools of nursing be independent of hospitals and that students no longer be exploited as cheap labor. Following this, several university schools of nursing were opened. During the depression of the 1930s, many nurses were unemployed, and the number of schools declined. World War II, however, brought about another increased demand for nurses. Since the end of World War II, technological advances in medicine and health have required nurses to become knowledgeable about sophisticated equipment, to learn about an increasing number of medications, and to design nursing care appropriate for the health care delivery system during a period of rapid change.
Because, of ______ , nursing schools increased their enrollments, and several new programs were developed.

A.independence
B.being exploited
C.being the cheap labor
D.war

43.{{B}}Passage 3{{/B}}

In earlier centuries, nursing care was usually provided by volunteers who had little or no training--most commonly men and women of various religious orders. Toward the end of the 18th century nursing was considered an unsuitable occupation for "proper" young women, undoubtedly due to the fact that hospitals in those days were dirty places where patients usually died. As a result, those who provided nursing care were commonly persons who could not find work elsewhere.
Modern nursing began in the mid-19th century with the appearance of the Nightingale training schools for nurses. In the United States, the Spanish-American War and, later, World War I established the need for more nurses in both military and civilian life. As a result, nursing schools increased their enrollments, and several new programs were developed. In 1920 a study recommended that schools of nursing be independent of hospitals and that students no longer be exploited as cheap labor. Following this, several university schools of nursing were opened. During the depression of the 1930s, many nurses were unemployed, and the number of schools declined. World War II, however, brought about another increased demand for nurses. Since the end of World War II, technological advances in medicine and health have required nurses to become knowledgeable about sophisticated equipment, to learn about an increasing number of medications, and to design nursing care appropriate for the health care delivery system during a period of rapid change.
In the sentence "Since the end of World War II, technological advances in medicine and health have required nurses to become knowledgeable about sophisticated equipment.", here "sophisticated" can be replaced by ______ .

A.easy
B.advanced
C.complex
D.modern

44.{{B}}Passage 2{{/B}}

Placing a satellite into orbit requires a tremendous amount of energy, which is achieved from multistage rockets burning chemical fuels.
The first stage of a multistage rocket consists of rocket engines that provide a huge amount of force. The first stage lifts the entire launch vehicle--with its load of fuel, the rocket body, and the satellite--off the launch pad (发射台) and into the first part of the flight. After its engines use all their fuel, the first stage portion of the rocket separates from the rest of the launch vehicle and falls to the earth.
The second stage then ignites, providing the energy necessary to lift the satellite into orbit. It, too, then separates from the satellite and any remaining rocket stages.
The rest of the launch depends on the satellite’s mission. And a third rocket stage provides the energy to lift the satellite to its final orbital altitude. After the satellite has reached the final altitude, another rocket engine fires and gives the satellite a circular orbit. All rocket-engine burns occur at a precise moment and last for a precise amount of time so that the satellite achieves its proper position in space.
In 1990 the United States began launching some satellites from aircraft flying at high altitudes. This method still requires a rocket-powered launch vehicle, but because the vehicle does not have to overcome friction with the thick atmosphere found at low altitudes, much less fuel is needed. However, the size of the rocket is limited by the size and strength of the aircraft, so only smaller satellites can be launched this way.
Generally speaking how many stages are there in a multistage rocket

A.Two.
B.Three.
C.Four.
D.Five.

45.
{{B}}Passage 1{{/B}}

Studies of whales in captivity (囚禁;被拘留的状态) have taught us much about their physiology (生理学) as well as their complex social behavior. Their learning and problem-solving skills, together with their curiosity and often eager interactions with humans, have led some scientists to believe that whales possess a high level of intelligence.
The large brains of whales also suggest a high intelligence. The sperm whale (抹香鲸)’s brain is considerably larger than an elephant’s, brain and six times the size of a human brain. However, relative to the rest of the body, a sperm whale’s brain is only about 0.02 percent of its body weight, while a human brain is about 2 percent. These animals tend to rely on hearing more than vision, which explains why the visual centers of their brains are smaller proportionally than those in humans. Another feature is the degree of folding of the upper surface of the brain. This folding increases the surface area and has been observed in more intelligent animals. Whale brains generally show as much or more folding area as is seen in humans.
Complex behavior may reveal more about whale intelligence than brain size. Perhaps the most interesting indications of whale intelligence came with the discovery in the 1970s of whale singing. Singing is most common on the winter mating grounds, for example in the Caribbean and Hawaii.
There is no solid evidence that the songs encode language in an intellectual sense. The whale songs may be simply longer versions of the mating songs also noted in birds and amphibians (两栖动物).
"There is no solid evidence that the songs encode language in an intellectual sense." in the sentence "solid" means ______ .

A.firm
B.obvious
C.reliable
D.liable

46.{{B}}Passage 2{{/B}}

Placing a satellite into orbit requires a tremendous amount of energy, which is achieved from multistage rockets burning chemical fuels.
The first stage of a multistage rocket consists of rocket engines that provide a huge amount of force. The first stage lifts the entire launch vehicle--with its load of fuel, the rocket body, and the satellite--off the launch pad (发射台) and into the first part of the flight. After its engines use all their fuel, the first stage portion of the rocket separates from the rest of the launch vehicle and falls to the earth.
The second stage then ignites, providing the energy necessary to lift the satellite into orbit. It, too, then separates from the satellite and any remaining rocket stages.
The rest of the launch depends on the satellite’s mission. And a third rocket stage provides the energy to lift the satellite to its final orbital altitude. After the satellite has reached the final altitude, another rocket engine fires and gives the satellite a circular orbit. All rocket-engine burns occur at a precise moment and last for a precise amount of time so that the satellite achieves its proper position in space.
In 1990 the United States began launching some satellites from aircraft flying at high altitudes. This method still requires a rocket-powered launch vehicle, but because the vehicle does not have to overcome friction with the thick atmosphere found at low altitudes, much less fuel is needed. However, the size of the rocket is limited by the size and strength of the aircraft, so only smaller satellites can be launched this way.
Which of the following statements is NOT the characteristics of the United States’ aircraft launching some satellites

A.This method still needs a rocket-powered launch vehicle.
B.The vehicle can pay no attention to friction with the thick atmosphere.
C.Much more fuel is needed.
D.Only smaller satellites can be launched this way.

47.{{B}}Passage 3{{/B}}

In earlier centuries, nursing care was usually provided by volunteers who had little or no training--most commonly men and women of various religious orders. Toward the end of the 18th century nursing was considered an unsuitable occupation for "proper" young women, undoubtedly due to the fact that hospitals in those days were dirty places where patients usually died. As a result, those who provided nursing care were commonly persons who could not find work elsewhere.
Modern nursing began in the mid-19th century with the appearance of the Nightingale training schools for nurses. In the United States, the Spanish-American War and, later, World War I established the need for more nurses in both military and civilian life. As a result, nursing schools increased their enrollments, and several new programs were developed. In 1920 a study recommended that schools of nursing be independent of hospitals and that students no longer be exploited as cheap labor. Following this, several university schools of nursing were opened. During the depression of the 1930s, many nurses were unemployed, and the number of schools declined. World War II, however, brought about another increased demand for nurses. Since the end of World War II, technological advances in medicine and health have required nurses to become knowledgeable about sophisticated equipment, to learn about an increasing number of medications, and to design nursing care appropriate for the health care delivery system during a period of rapid change.
It can be inferred from the information contained in the passage that ______ .

A.nursing is an important job
B.to become a nurse now requires much more knowledge and abilities
C.people like to be a nurse now
D.many nurses were unemployed

49.In spite of the treatment, the pain in his leg grew in ______.

A. gravity
B. extent
C. intensity
D. amount

试卷来源:易哈佛

总分:100分

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