易哈佛 \ 大学英语 \ 2020年大学英语考试考前冲刺卷(3)

2020年大学英语考试考前冲刺卷(3)

2020年大学英语考试考前冲刺卷(3)

  • 本卷共分为1大题50小题,作答时间为180分钟,总分100分,60分及格。
  • 试卷来源:易哈佛

一、单项选择题(共50题,每题2分。每题的备选项中,只有一个最符合题意)

1.Stress is a word commonly found in today’s vocabulary, and is often used to describe modern working and living patterns, especially in big cities. Yet stress has been a part of daily life since time immemorial. Thus it would be more pertinent to define stress as the way in which the human body deals with all kinds of threatening situations, from confrontations with wild, vicious animals, to struggling through a crowded subway station during the early-morning rush hour: the effects on the body being universal. When confronted with a stressful situation the body reacts by releasing a hormone known as ACTH from the posterior pituitary gland situated at the base of the brain. The hormone, traveling through the network of arteries that make up the primary blood supply route, reaches the kidneys, or more specifically, glands situated on the peripheries, where it stimulates the release of adrenaline. This has an antagonistic effect on various bodily functions. That is to say it stimulates a response in certain organs, whilst inhibiting action in others. In other words a type of trade-off is reached, whereby energy saved by shutting down one function is thus used to enhance the performance of a neighbor. In this way, the body can prepare itself fully for the oncoming danger by using, primarily, the same given amount of energy, giving rise to what is known as the fight or flight response. When the fight or flight response is activated, with the release of adrenaline, blood is directed away from non-vital functions such as the skin and digestion, and redirected to the essential organs such as the brain to facilitate thought, the large muscle groups to facilitate speed, and the lungs to increase the amount of oxygen uptake into the bloodstream, whilst the heart beats faster to pump the blood round the body at an increased rate of speed, and raising the blood pressure. Once the stressful situation has passed the opposite occurs, resulting in what is known as the sympathetic rebound. The heart slows down and blood is redirected away from the lungs, brain and muscles, flowing, once more, to every part of the body, whilst digestion resumes. It is, however, the sympathetic rebound, or more specifically, the effects of the sympathetic rebound that lead to the myriad of modern stress-related diseases. Stress, in fact, has been linked to many more common diseases, such as cancer and even the common cold. The reason for this is that during the fight or flight response the body’s immune system that fights disease is also shut down, leaving the person more vulnerable to illness, and is, indeed, one of the commonest forms of stress-related problems. Unfortunately, however, modern life is packed full of stressful situations, and costs industry, thus the economy, millions of dollars each year in lost revenue. Traveling to work in the morning, meeting tight deadlines whilst at work, studying to further one’s qualifications, paying the mortgage or children’s school fees are but a few. Thus, it transpires that stress is a modern day epidemic that urgently needs addressing. Facing stress, ______ in the brain releases a hormone to cope with that situation.

A.ACTH
B.the network of arteries
C.pituitary gland
D.the peripheries

2.Hollywood racked up another "record" year at the box office. But the higher ticket sales mask fundamental issues in the U. S. movie industry, where the so-called blockbuster strategy is causing movies to open with big tallies that fall off faster than in previous years. Movie ticket sales reached an estimated 8.35 billion in 2001, up 8.4% from 7.7 billion in 2000, the largest gain since 1998. Moreover, the number of tickets sold — a more reliable indicator — rose to an estimated 1.49 billion, according to box-office tracking firm Exhibitor Relations Co. The strong sales were aided by the post-Christmas, pre-New Year weekend. Although many observers thought people would stay away from the theaters after the 9•11, the numbers have been up 5% industry-wide since then from year earlier levels. Those positive trends, however, gloss over deeper problems facing the Hollywood studios and movie theater chains, where real audience growth has been marginal. Box-office totals have nearly tripled during the past decade, while the number of tickets sold has risen 30%, indicating the box-office record is driven by higher ticket prices, not increase in movie attendance. A more dangerous development, at least for theater operators, has been the trend toward movies opening to large box-office figures during the first weekend and then quickly trailing off. Theater operators earn most of the money from movies playing in their theaters after the second week. Studios, in contrast, collect the majority of a movie’s ticket receipts the first week. But, for the Hollywood studios that distribute the bulk of the movies seen by the public, the blockbuster strategy of putting as many marketable high profile movies into theaters as possible will continue in 2002 "I call it the year of the sequel," says Paul, a box-office analyst, noting the coming year’s lineup includes Men in Black 2, Stuart Little 2, Spy Kids 2, second installments for Harry Potter and Lord of the Ring. "Studios are playing it safe," he says. Such hyper-marketed movies can open big at box office, but they don’t tend to hold up in subsequent weeks, as the core movie-going audience — teenagers and adults in their 20s flock to the next "big" movie. Some of last year’s largest openers, such as Planet of the Apes, The Mummy Return and Jurassic Park saw their box-office number plunge by 50% or more the second weekend. One possible outcome is that the decades-old relationship between studios and theaters will undergo changes. If the studios persist in pushing "blockbuster" movies, then the traditional system of the studios taking a larger share of the box-office receipts in the first weeks could be revised to something more equitable. Studios, however, would be expected to fight any effort to revamp the current system. The fundamental issue in the U.S. movie industry is that

A.the box-office figures have been declining ceaselessly without any improvement.
B.as the ticket price is going up rapidly these years, fewer people can afford it.
C."big" movies open with a large box-office figures, but decline quickly after a short period.
D.high quality movie are becoming marginal and the core of the movie-going audience is limited.

3.Chris Baildon, tall and lean, was in his early thirties, and the end product of an old decayed island family. Chris shared the too large house with his father, an arthritic and difficult man, and a wasp-tongued aunt, whose complaints ended only when she slept. The father and his sister, Chris’s Aunt Agatha, engaged in shrill-voiced arguments over nothing. The continuous exchanges further confused their foolish wits, and yet held off an unendurable loneliness. They held a common grievance against Chris, openly holding him to blame for their miserable existence. He should long ago have lifted them from poverty, for had they not sacrificed everything to send him to England and Oxford University Driven by creditors or pressing desires, earlier Baildons had long ago cheaply disposed of valuable properties. Brother and sister never ceased to remind each other of the depressing fact that their ancestors had wasted their inheritance. This, in fact, was their only other point of agreement. A few years earlier Agatha had announced that she intended doing something about repairing the family fortunes. The many empty rooms could be rented to selected guests. She would establish, not a boarding house, but a home for ladies and gentlemen, and make a tidy profit. She threw herself into the venture with a noisy fury. Old furniture was polished; rugs and carpets were beaten, floors painted, long-stored mattresses, pillows and bed linen aired and sweetened in the sun. Agatha, with a fine air of defiance, took the copy for a modest advertisement to the press. Two guests were lured by the promise of beautiful gourmet meals, a home atmosphere in an historic mansion, the company of well-brought-up ladies and gentlemen. The two, one a bank clerk and the other a maiden lady employed in a bookshop, arrived simultaneously, whereupon Agatha condescended to show them to their room, and promptly forgot about them. There was no hot water. Dinner time found Baildon and Agatha sharing half a cold chicken and a few boiled potatoes in the dining room’s gloomy vastness. When the guests came timidly to inquire about the dining-hours, and to point out that there were no sheets on the beds, no water in the pots, no towels on their racks, Agatha reminded them that the Baidons were not inn-keepers, and then treated them to an account of the family’s past glories. What do we learn about the Baidons’ ancestors

A.They were bad managers.
B.They had been treated unfairly.
C.They had always been poor.
D.They didn’t maintain their house properly.

4.Increasing numbers of parents in the U.S. are choosing to teach their kids at home. In fact, the U. S. Department of Education estimated that, in 1999, around 850,000 children were being homeschooled. Some educational experts say the real figure is about double this estimate, and the ranks of homeschooled children appear to grow at a rate about 11 percent annually. At one time, there was a stigma associated with homeschooling. It was traditionally used for students who could not attend school because of behavioral or learning difficulties. Today, however, more parents are taking on the responsibility of educating their children at home due to dissatisfaction with the educational system. Many parents are unhappy about class size, as well as problems inside the classroom. Teacher shortages and lack of funding mean that, in many schools, one teacher is responsible for thirty or forty pupils. The result is often that children are deprived of the attention they need. Escalating classroom violence has also motivated some parents to remove their children from school. Critics of homeschooling say that children who are not in the classroom miss out on learning important social skills because they have little interaction with their peers. Several studies, though, have shown that the home-educated appear to do just as well in terms of social and emotional development as other students, having spent more time in the comfort and security of their home, with guidance from parents who care about their welfare. In spite of this, many critics of homeschooling have raised concerns about the ability of parents to teach their kids effectively. Many parents whose homeschool have no teacher training and are not competent educators of all the subjects taught in schools. In terms of academic achievement, however, homeschooled children do just as well as those who have been in the classroom and many walk the campuses of Harvard and Stanford alongside the conventionally-educated. With an increasing number of disgruntled parents taking their children out of class, schools are receiving less money in per pupil funding. Some see this as a threat to the system, and argue that schools will never be able to improve their situation and restore parents’ confidence in the educational system. Many schools have opened their doors to homeschoolers on a part-time basis, allowing these children to attend classes once or twice a week, or take part in extra-curricular activities such as playing football or taking ballet lessons. While parents will not completely put their confidence back into the system, many of them have reached a compromise that allows their children the extra benefits of peer interaction and access to a wider choice of activities. Whatever the arguments for or against it, homeschooling in the U.S. has become a multimillion dollar industry, and it is growing. There are now websites, support groups, and conventions that help parents assert their rights and enable them to learn more about educating their children. Though once the last resort for troubled children, homeschooling today is an accepted alternative to an educational system that some believe is failing. Why have many schools opened their doors to homeschoolers on a part-time basis

A.Because they want to raise money for their school.
B.They hope to refigure their images in the parents’ mind.
C.They hope to provide home-educated children the extra benefits of peer interaction.
D.They did it at the request of parents.

5.Hollywood racked up another "record" year at the box office. But the higher ticket sales mask fundamental issues in the U. S. movie industry, where the so-called blockbuster strategy is causing movies to open with big tallies that fall off faster than in previous years. Movie ticket sales reached an estimated 8.35 billion in 2001, up 8.4% from 7.7 billion in 2000, the largest gain since 1998. Moreover, the number of tickets sold — a more reliable indicator — rose to an estimated 1.49 billion, according to box-office tracking firm Exhibitor Relations Co. The strong sales were aided by the post-Christmas, pre-New Year weekend. Although many observers thought people would stay away from the theaters after the 9•11, the numbers have been up 5% industry-wide since then from year earlier levels. Those positive trends, however, gloss over deeper problems facing the Hollywood studios and movie theater chains, where real audience growth has been marginal. Box-office totals have nearly tripled during the past decade, while the number of tickets sold has risen 30%, indicating the box-office record is driven by higher ticket prices, not increase in movie attendance. A more dangerous development, at least for theater operators, has been the trend toward movies opening to large box-office figures during the first weekend and then quickly trailing off. Theater operators earn most of the money from movies playing in their theaters after the second week. Studios, in contrast, collect the majority of a movie’s ticket receipts the first week. But, for the Hollywood studios that distribute the bulk of the movies seen by the public, the blockbuster strategy of putting as many marketable high profile movies into theaters as possible will continue in 2002 "I call it the year of the sequel," says Paul, a box-office analyst, noting the coming year’s lineup includes Men in Black 2, Stuart Little 2, Spy Kids 2, second installments for Harry Potter and Lord of the Ring. "Studios are playing it safe," he says. Such hyper-marketed movies can open big at box office, but they don’t tend to hold up in subsequent weeks, as the core movie-going audience — teenagers and adults in their 20s flock to the next "big" movie. Some of last year’s largest openers, such as Planet of the Apes, The Mummy Return and Jurassic Park saw their box-office number plunge by 50% or more the second weekend. One possible outcome is that the decades-old relationship between studios and theaters will undergo changes. If the studios persist in pushing "blockbuster" movies, then the traditional system of the studios taking a larger share of the box-office receipts in the first weeks could be revised to something more equitable. Studios, however, would be expected to fight any effort to revamp the current system. The so-called "blockbuster strategy" (in Para. 1) means to

A.show a meticulously high-quality movie to attract the audience.
B.show as many high profile movies as possible.
C.put on the well publicized movies to overwhelm the audiences.
D.put a lot of movies into the theaters in a short period.

6.Stress is a word commonly found in today’s vocabulary, and is often used to describe modern working and living patterns, especially in big cities. Yet stress has been a part of daily life since time immemorial. Thus it would be more pertinent to define stress as the way in which the human body deals with all kinds of threatening situations, from confrontations with wild, vicious animals, to struggling through a crowded subway station during the early-morning rush hour: the effects on the body being universal. When confronted with a stressful situation the body reacts by releasing a hormone known as ACTH from the posterior pituitary gland situated at the base of the brain. The hormone, traveling through the network of arteries that make up the primary blood supply route, reaches the kidneys, or more specifically, glands situated on the peripheries, where it stimulates the release of adrenaline. This has an antagonistic effect on various bodily functions. That is to say it stimulates a response in certain organs, whilst inhibiting action in others. In other words a type of trade-off is reached, whereby energy saved by shutting down one function is thus used to enhance the performance of a neighbor. In this way, the body can prepare itself fully for the oncoming danger by using, primarily, the same given amount of energy, giving rise to what is known as the fight or flight response. When the fight or flight response is activated, with the release of adrenaline, blood is directed away from non-vital functions such as the skin and digestion, and redirected to the essential organs such as the brain to facilitate thought, the large muscle groups to facilitate speed, and the lungs to increase the amount of oxygen uptake into the bloodstream, whilst the heart beats faster to pump the blood round the body at an increased rate of speed, and raising the blood pressure. Once the stressful situation has passed the opposite occurs, resulting in what is known as the sympathetic rebound. The heart slows down and blood is redirected away from the lungs, brain and muscles, flowing, once more, to every part of the body, whilst digestion resumes. It is, however, the sympathetic rebound, or more specifically, the effects of the sympathetic rebound that lead to the myriad of modern stress-related diseases. Stress, in fact, has been linked to many more common diseases, such as cancer and even the common cold. The reason for this is that during the fight or flight response the body’s immune system that fights disease is also shut down, leaving the person more vulnerable to illness, and is, indeed, one of the commonest forms of stress-related problems. Unfortunately, however, modern life is packed full of stressful situations, and costs industry, thus the economy, millions of dollars each year in lost revenue. Traveling to work in the morning, meeting tight deadlines whilst at work, studying to further one’s qualifications, paying the mortgage or children’s school fees are but a few. Thus, it transpires that stress is a modern day epidemic that urgently needs addressing. Modern stress-related illnesses are believed to be caused by

A.being under constant stress.
B.the aftereffects of stress.
C.modern life styles.
D.the release of adrenaline.

7.A leading climate change scientist says the warming of the planet would have a devastating impact on the poor and the hungry. The chairman of the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel (31) Climate Change, Rajendra Pachauri, says the (32) of climate change will be mainly felt in the areas of health and agriculture. He says it is the poor (33) would suffer the most from the change. He says heat waves in different parts of the world are making people ill and (34) many deaths. He says the situation is (35) bad in poor countries that do not have the infrastructure or necessary means to (36) people from extreme heat. (37) the agricultural effects of climate change, Pachauri says a great many people are (38) on rain-fed agriculture. Climate change would lead to an increase in precipitation ( 降水 ) in temperate areas, ( 39 ) a decrease in tropical and sub-tropical areas, where most of the people on Earth live. Those who depend on agriculture for their (40) , he says, would be (41) affected by the decrease. "At the global level, with the decline in agricultural (42) , in the largest countries of the world or the most (43) countries of the world, we will find that food stocks will (44) ," Pachauri said. "And, as a matter of fact, that has already started happening. The result of that will be a(n) (45) in food prices. Now, (46) in turn, hits the poorest of the poor very badly. "As countermeasures, the farmers will have to (47) measures such as the more (48) use of water resources and new strains of crops that can (49) higher temperatures and lower (50) of water will have to be developed.

A.seducing
B.yielding
C.causing
D.resulting

8.Chris Baildon, tall and lean, was in his early thirties, and the end product of an old decayed island family. Chris shared the too large house with his father, an arthritic and difficult man, and a wasp-tongued aunt, whose complaints ended only when she slept. The father and his sister, Chris’s Aunt Agatha, engaged in shrill-voiced arguments over nothing. The continuous exchanges further confused their foolish wits, and yet held off an unendurable loneliness. They held a common grievance against Chris, openly holding him to blame for their miserable existence. He should long ago have lifted them from poverty, for had they not sacrificed everything to send him to England and Oxford University Driven by creditors or pressing desires, earlier Baildons had long ago cheaply disposed of valuable properties. Brother and sister never ceased to remind each other of the depressing fact that their ancestors had wasted their inheritance. This, in fact, was their only other point of agreement. A few years earlier Agatha had announced that she intended doing something about repairing the family fortunes. The many empty rooms could be rented to selected guests. She would establish, not a boarding house, but a home for ladies and gentlemen, and make a tidy profit. She threw herself into the venture with a noisy fury. Old furniture was polished; rugs and carpets were beaten, floors painted, long-stored mattresses, pillows and bed linen aired and sweetened in the sun. Agatha, with a fine air of defiance, took the copy for a modest advertisement to the press. Two guests were lured by the promise of beautiful gourmet meals, a home atmosphere in an historic mansion, the company of well-brought-up ladies and gentlemen. The two, one a bank clerk and the other a maiden lady employed in a bookshop, arrived simultaneously, whereupon Agatha condescended to show them to their room, and promptly forgot about them. There was no hot water. Dinner time found Baildon and Agatha sharing half a cold chicken and a few boiled potatoes in the dining room’s gloomy vastness. When the guests came timidly to inquire about the dining-hours, and to point out that there were no sheets on the beds, no water in the pots, no towels on their racks, Agatha reminded them that the Baidons were not inn-keepers, and then treated them to an account of the family’s past glories. What does the word "tidy" in Line 3, Para.5 possibly mean

A.Neat and orderly.
B.Substantial and considerable.
C.Adequate and valuable.
D.Minute.

9.Increasing numbers of parents in the U.S. are choosing to teach their kids at home. In fact, the U. S. Department of Education estimated that, in 1999, around 850,000 children were being homeschooled. Some educational experts say the real figure is about double this estimate, and the ranks of homeschooled children appear to grow at a rate about 11 percent annually. At one time, there was a stigma associated with homeschooling. It was traditionally used for students who could not attend school because of behavioral or learning difficulties. Today, however, more parents are taking on the responsibility of educating their children at home due to dissatisfaction with the educational system. Many parents are unhappy about class size, as well as problems inside the classroom. Teacher shortages and lack of funding mean that, in many schools, one teacher is responsible for thirty or forty pupils. The result is often that children are deprived of the attention they need. Escalating classroom violence has also motivated some parents to remove their children from school. Critics of homeschooling say that children who are not in the classroom miss out on learning important social skills because they have little interaction with their peers. Several studies, though, have shown that the home-educated appear to do just as well in terms of social and emotional development as other students, having spent more time in the comfort and security of their home, with guidance from parents who care about their welfare. In spite of this, many critics of homeschooling have raised concerns about the ability of parents to teach their kids effectively. Many parents whose homeschool have no teacher training and are not competent educators of all the subjects taught in schools. In terms of academic achievement, however, homeschooled children do just as well as those who have been in the classroom and many walk the campuses of Harvard and Stanford alongside the conventionally-educated. With an increasing number of disgruntled parents taking their children out of class, schools are receiving less money in per pupil funding. Some see this as a threat to the system, and argue that schools will never be able to improve their situation and restore parents’ confidence in the educational system. Many schools have opened their doors to homeschoolers on a part-time basis, allowing these children to attend classes once or twice a week, or take part in extra-curricular activities such as playing football or taking ballet lessons. While parents will not completely put their confidence back into the system, many of them have reached a compromise that allows their children the extra benefits of peer interaction and access to a wider choice of activities. Whatever the arguments for or against it, homeschooling in the U.S. has become a multimillion dollar industry, and it is growing. There are now websites, support groups, and conventions that help parents assert their rights and enable them to learn more about educating their children. Though once the last resort for troubled children, homeschooling today is an accepted alternative to an educational system that some believe is failing. The word "escalating" in the second paragraph is closest in meaning to

A.disgusting.
B.terrible.
C.disorderly.
D.increasing.

10.Stress is a word commonly found in today’s vocabulary, and is often used to describe modern working and living patterns, especially in big cities. Yet stress has been a part of daily life since time immemorial. Thus it would be more pertinent to define stress as the way in which the human body deals with all kinds of threatening situations, from confrontations with wild, vicious animals, to struggling through a crowded subway station during the early-morning rush hour: the effects on the body being universal. When confronted with a stressful situation the body reacts by releasing a hormone known as ACTH from the posterior pituitary gland situated at the base of the brain. The hormone, traveling through the network of arteries that make up the primary blood supply route, reaches the kidneys, or more specifically, glands situated on the peripheries, where it stimulates the release of adrenaline. This has an antagonistic effect on various bodily functions. That is to say it stimulates a response in certain organs, whilst inhibiting action in others. In other words a type of trade-off is reached, whereby energy saved by shutting down one function is thus used to enhance the performance of a neighbor. In this way, the body can prepare itself fully for the oncoming danger by using, primarily, the same given amount of energy, giving rise to what is known as the fight or flight response. When the fight or flight response is activated, with the release of adrenaline, blood is directed away from non-vital functions such as the skin and digestion, and redirected to the essential organs such as the brain to facilitate thought, the large muscle groups to facilitate speed, and the lungs to increase the amount of oxygen uptake into the bloodstream, whilst the heart beats faster to pump the blood round the body at an increased rate of speed, and raising the blood pressure. Once the stressful situation has passed the opposite occurs, resulting in what is known as the sympathetic rebound. The heart slows down and blood is redirected away from the lungs, brain and muscles, flowing, once more, to every part of the body, whilst digestion resumes. It is, however, the sympathetic rebound, or more specifically, the effects of the sympathetic rebound that lead to the myriad of modern stress-related diseases. Stress, in fact, has been linked to many more common diseases, such as cancer and even the common cold. The reason for this is that during the fight or flight response the body’s immune system that fights disease is also shut down, leaving the person more vulnerable to illness, and is, indeed, one of the commonest forms of stress-related problems. Unfortunately, however, modern life is packed full of stressful situations, and costs industry, thus the economy, millions of dollars each year in lost revenue. Traveling to work in the morning, meeting tight deadlines whilst at work, studying to further one’s qualifications, paying the mortgage or children’s school fees are but a few. Thus, it transpires that stress is a modern day epidemic that urgently needs addressing. Which of the following statements is INCORRECT about the stressful situation in modern life

A.To pay the mortgage.
B.To commute to the office.
C.To further one’s qualifications.
D.To resume digestion.

11.Hollywood racked up another "record" year at the box office. But the higher ticket sales mask fundamental issues in the U. S. movie industry, where the so-called blockbuster strategy is causing movies to open with big tallies that fall off faster than in previous years. Movie ticket sales reached an estimated 8.35 billion in 2001, up 8.4% from 7.7 billion in 2000, the largest gain since 1998. Moreover, the number of tickets sold — a more reliable indicator — rose to an estimated 1.49 billion, according to box-office tracking firm Exhibitor Relations Co. The strong sales were aided by the post-Christmas, pre-New Year weekend. Although many observers thought people would stay away from the theaters after the 9•11, the numbers have been up 5% industry-wide since then from year earlier levels. Those positive trends, however, gloss over deeper problems facing the Hollywood studios and movie theater chains, where real audience growth has been marginal. Box-office totals have nearly tripled during the past decade, while the number of tickets sold has risen 30%, indicating the box-office record is driven by higher ticket prices, not increase in movie attendance. A more dangerous development, at least for theater operators, has been the trend toward movies opening to large box-office figures during the first weekend and then quickly trailing off. Theater operators earn most of the money from movies playing in their theaters after the second week. Studios, in contrast, collect the majority of a movie’s ticket receipts the first week. But, for the Hollywood studios that distribute the bulk of the movies seen by the public, the blockbuster strategy of putting as many marketable high profile movies into theaters as possible will continue in 2002 "I call it the year of the sequel," says Paul, a box-office analyst, noting the coming year’s lineup includes Men in Black 2, Stuart Little 2, Spy Kids 2, second installments for Harry Potter and Lord of the Ring. "Studios are playing it safe," he says. Such hyper-marketed movies can open big at box office, but they don’t tend to hold up in subsequent weeks, as the core movie-going audience — teenagers and adults in their 20s flock to the next "big" movie. Some of last year’s largest openers, such as Planet of the Apes, The Mummy Return and Jurassic Park saw their box-office number plunge by 50% or more the second weekend. One possible outcome is that the decades-old relationship between studios and theaters will undergo changes. If the studios persist in pushing "blockbuster" movies, then the traditional system of the studios taking a larger share of the box-office receipts in the first weeks could be revised to something more equitable. Studios, however, would be expected to fight any effort to revamp the current system. According to the passage, one possible solution that can solve the current problem between the studios and the theaters is to

A.produce more and more marketable "big" movies and put them into theaters immediately.
B.improve the quality of the movies and enlarge the number of the audience.
C.stop carrying out the "blockbuster" strategy and revise systems to balance the interest.
D.have recourse to law in order to achieve a more equitable pattern.

12.Hollywood racked up another "record" year at the box office. But the higher ticket sales mask fundamental issues in the U. S. movie industry, where the so-called blockbuster strategy is causing movies to open with big tallies that fall off faster than in previous years. Movie ticket sales reached an estimated 8.35 billion in 2001, up 8.4% from 7.7 billion in 2000, the largest gain since 1998. Moreover, the number of tickets sold — a more reliable indicator — rose to an estimated 1.49 billion, according to box-office tracking firm Exhibitor Relations Co. The strong sales were aided by the post-Christmas, pre-New Year weekend. Although many observers thought people would stay away from the theaters after the 9•11, the numbers have been up 5% industry-wide since then from year earlier levels. Those positive trends, however, gloss over deeper problems facing the Hollywood studios and movie theater chains, where real audience growth has been marginal. Box-office totals have nearly tripled during the past decade, while the number of tickets sold has risen 30%, indicating the box-office record is driven by higher ticket prices, not increase in movie attendance. A more dangerous development, at least for theater operators, has been the trend toward movies opening to large box-office figures during the first weekend and then quickly trailing off. Theater operators earn most of the money from movies playing in their theaters after the second week. Studios, in contrast, collect the majority of a movie’s ticket receipts the first week. But, for the Hollywood studios that distribute the bulk of the movies seen by the public, the blockbuster strategy of putting as many marketable high profile movies into theaters as possible will continue in 2002 "I call it the year of the sequel," says Paul, a box-office analyst, noting the coming year’s lineup includes Men in Black 2, Stuart Little 2, Spy Kids 2, second installments for Harry Potter and Lord of the Ring. "Studios are playing it safe," he says. Such hyper-marketed movies can open big at box office, but they don’t tend to hold up in subsequent weeks, as the core movie-going audience — teenagers and adults in their 20s flock to the next "big" movie. Some of last year’s largest openers, such as Planet of the Apes, The Mummy Return and Jurassic Park saw their box-office number plunge by 50% or more the second weekend. One possible outcome is that the decades-old relationship between studios and theaters will undergo changes. If the studios persist in pushing "blockbuster" movies, then the traditional system of the studios taking a larger share of the box-office receipts in the first weeks could be revised to something more equitable. Studios, however, would be expected to fight any effort to revamp the current system. What is the main idea of the passage

A.Giving a general picture of the U.S. movie industry.
B.Analyzing why Hollywood had another harvest at the box office.
C.Explaining the blockbuster strategy used by Hollywood studios.
D.Analyzing the problems faced by the U.S. movie industry and the possible solution.

13.Increasing numbers of parents in the U.S. are choosing to teach their kids at home. In fact, the U. S. Department of Education estimated that, in 1999, around 850,000 children were being homeschooled. Some educational experts say the real figure is about double this estimate, and the ranks of homeschooled children appear to grow at a rate about 11 percent annually. At one time, there was a stigma associated with homeschooling. It was traditionally used for students who could not attend school because of behavioral or learning difficulties. Today, however, more parents are taking on the responsibility of educating their children at home due to dissatisfaction with the educational system. Many parents are unhappy about class size, as well as problems inside the classroom. Teacher shortages and lack of funding mean that, in many schools, one teacher is responsible for thirty or forty pupils. The result is often that children are deprived of the attention they need. Escalating classroom violence has also motivated some parents to remove their children from school. Critics of homeschooling say that children who are not in the classroom miss out on learning important social skills because they have little interaction with their peers. Several studies, though, have shown that the home-educated appear to do just as well in terms of social and emotional development as other students, having spent more time in the comfort and security of their home, with guidance from parents who care about their welfare. In spite of this, many critics of homeschooling have raised concerns about the ability of parents to teach their kids effectively. Many parents whose homeschool have no teacher training and are not competent educators of all the subjects taught in schools. In terms of academic achievement, however, homeschooled children do just as well as those who have been in the classroom and many walk the campuses of Harvard and Stanford alongside the conventionally-educated. With an increasing number of disgruntled parents taking their children out of class, schools are receiving less money in per pupil funding. Some see this as a threat to the system, and argue that schools will never be able to improve their situation and restore parents’ confidence in the educational system. Many schools have opened their doors to homeschoolers on a part-time basis, allowing these children to attend classes once or twice a week, or take part in extra-curricular activities such as playing football or taking ballet lessons. While parents will not completely put their confidence back into the system, many of them have reached a compromise that allows their children the extra benefits of peer interaction and access to a wider choice of activities. Whatever the arguments for or against it, homeschooling in the U.S. has become a multimillion dollar industry, and it is growing. There are now websites, support groups, and conventions that help parents assert their rights and enable them to learn more about educating their children. Though once the last resort for troubled children, homeschooling today is an accepted alternative to an educational system that some believe is failing. What is author’s attitude towards homeschooling

A.Approval.
B.Disapproval.
C.Neutral.
D.Strongly opposing.

14.A leading climate change scientist says the warming of the planet would have a devastating impact on the poor and the hungry. The chairman of the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel (31) Climate Change, Rajendra Pachauri, says the (32) of climate change will be mainly felt in the areas of health and agriculture. He says it is the poor (33) would suffer the most from the change. He says heat waves in different parts of the world are making people ill and (34) many deaths. He says the situation is (35) bad in poor countries that do not have the infrastructure or necessary means to (36) people from extreme heat. (37) the agricultural effects of climate change, Pachauri says a great many people are (38) on rain-fed agriculture. Climate change would lead to an increase in precipitation ( 降水 ) in temperate areas, ( 39 ) a decrease in tropical and sub-tropical areas, where most of the people on Earth live. Those who depend on agriculture for their (40) , he says, would be (41) affected by the decrease. "At the global level, with the decline in agricultural (42) , in the largest countries of the world or the most (43) countries of the world, we will find that food stocks will (44) ," Pachauri said. "And, as a matter of fact, that has already started happening. The result of that will be a(n) (45) in food prices. Now, (46) in turn, hits the poorest of the poor very badly. "As countermeasures, the farmers will have to (47) measures such as the more (48) use of water resources and new strains of crops that can (49) higher temperatures and lower (50) of water will have to be developed.

A.extremely
B.particularly
C.exceedingly
D.ponderously

15.Stress is a word commonly found in today’s vocabulary, and is often used to describe modern working and living patterns, especially in big cities. Yet stress has been a part of daily life since time immemorial. Thus it would be more pertinent to define stress as the way in which the human body deals with all kinds of threatening situations, from confrontations with wild, vicious animals, to struggling through a crowded subway station during the early-morning rush hour: the effects on the body being universal. When confronted with a stressful situation the body reacts by releasing a hormone known as ACTH from the posterior pituitary gland situated at the base of the brain. The hormone, traveling through the network of arteries that make up the primary blood supply route, reaches the kidneys, or more specifically, glands situated on the peripheries, where it stimulates the release of adrenaline. This has an antagonistic effect on various bodily functions. That is to say it stimulates a response in certain organs, whilst inhibiting action in others. In other words a type of trade-off is reached, whereby energy saved by shutting down one function is thus used to enhance the performance of a neighbor. In this way, the body can prepare itself fully for the oncoming danger by using, primarily, the same given amount of energy, giving rise to what is known as the fight or flight response. When the fight or flight response is activated, with the release of adrenaline, blood is directed away from non-vital functions such as the skin and digestion, and redirected to the essential organs such as the brain to facilitate thought, the large muscle groups to facilitate speed, and the lungs to increase the amount of oxygen uptake into the bloodstream, whilst the heart beats faster to pump the blood round the body at an increased rate of speed, and raising the blood pressure. Once the stressful situation has passed the opposite occurs, resulting in what is known as the sympathetic rebound. The heart slows down and blood is redirected away from the lungs, brain and muscles, flowing, once more, to every part of the body, whilst digestion resumes. It is, however, the sympathetic rebound, or more specifically, the effects of the sympathetic rebound that lead to the myriad of modern stress-related diseases. Stress, in fact, has been linked to many more common diseases, such as cancer and even the common cold. The reason for this is that during the fight or flight response the body’s immune system that fights disease is also shut down, leaving the person more vulnerable to illness, and is, indeed, one of the commonest forms of stress-related problems. Unfortunately, however, modern life is packed full of stressful situations, and costs industry, thus the economy, millions of dollars each year in lost revenue. Traveling to work in the morning, meeting tight deadlines whilst at work, studying to further one’s qualifications, paying the mortgage or children’s school fees are but a few. Thus, it transpires that stress is a modern day epidemic that urgently needs addressing. The best title for this passage is

A.Stress and the Human Immune System.
B.Stress and the Human Body.
C.Stress and the illness.
D.Stress and the Response of Immune System.

16.Chris Baildon, tall and lean, was in his early thirties, and the end product of an old decayed island family. Chris shared the too large house with his father, an arthritic and difficult man, and a wasp-tongued aunt, whose complaints ended only when she slept. The father and his sister, Chris’s Aunt Agatha, engaged in shrill-voiced arguments over nothing. The continuous exchanges further confused their foolish wits, and yet held off an unendurable loneliness. They held a common grievance against Chris, openly holding him to blame for their miserable existence. He should long ago have lifted them from poverty, for had they not sacrificed everything to send him to England and Oxford University Driven by creditors or pressing desires, earlier Baildons had long ago cheaply disposed of valuable properties. Brother and sister never ceased to remind each other of the depressing fact that their ancestors had wasted their inheritance. This, in fact, was their only other point of agreement. A few years earlier Agatha had announced that she intended doing something about repairing the family fortunes. The many empty rooms could be rented to selected guests. She would establish, not a boarding house, but a home for ladies and gentlemen, and make a tidy profit. She threw herself into the venture with a noisy fury. Old furniture was polished; rugs and carpets were beaten, floors painted, long-stored mattresses, pillows and bed linen aired and sweetened in the sun. Agatha, with a fine air of defiance, took the copy for a modest advertisement to the press. Two guests were lured by the promise of beautiful gourmet meals, a home atmosphere in an historic mansion, the company of well-brought-up ladies and gentlemen. The two, one a bank clerk and the other a maiden lady employed in a bookshop, arrived simultaneously, whereupon Agatha condescended to show them to their room, and promptly forgot about them. There was no hot water. Dinner time found Baildon and Agatha sharing half a cold chicken and a few boiled potatoes in the dining room’s gloomy vastness. When the guests came timidly to inquire about the dining-hours, and to point out that there were no sheets on the beds, no water in the pots, no towels on their racks, Agatha reminded them that the Baidons were not inn-keepers, and then treated them to an account of the family’s past glories. Which of the following best describes the author’s tone in the passage

A.Suspicious.
B.Humorous.
C.Persuasive.
D.Indifferent.

17.A leading climate change scientist says the warming of the planet would have a devastating impact on the poor and the hungry. The chairman of the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel (31) Climate Change, Rajendra Pachauri, says the (32) of climate change will be mainly felt in the areas of health and agriculture. He says it is the poor (33) would suffer the most from the change. He says heat waves in different parts of the world are making people ill and (34) many deaths. He says the situation is (35) bad in poor countries that do not have the infrastructure or necessary means to (36) people from extreme heat. (37) the agricultural effects of climate change, Pachauri says a great many people are (38) on rain-fed agriculture. Climate change would lead to an increase in precipitation ( 降水 ) in temperate areas, ( 39 ) a decrease in tropical and sub-tropical areas, where most of the people on Earth live. Those who depend on agriculture for their (40) , he says, would be (41) affected by the decrease. "At the global level, with the decline in agricultural (42) , in the largest countries of the world or the most (43) countries of the world, we will find that food stocks will (44) ," Pachauri said. "And, as a matter of fact, that has already started happening. The result of that will be a(n) (45) in food prices. Now, (46) in turn, hits the poorest of the poor very badly. "As countermeasures, the farmers will have to (47) measures such as the more (48) use of water resources and new strains of crops that can (49) higher temperatures and lower (50) of water will have to be developed.

A.protect
B.avoid
C.prevent
D.shield

18.Chris Baildon, tall and lean, was in his early thirties, and the end product of an old decayed island family. Chris shared the too large house with his father, an arthritic and difficult man, and a wasp-tongued aunt, whose complaints ended only when she slept. The father and his sister, Chris’s Aunt Agatha, engaged in shrill-voiced arguments over nothing. The continuous exchanges further confused their foolish wits, and yet held off an unendurable loneliness. They held a common grievance against Chris, openly holding him to blame for their miserable existence. He should long ago have lifted them from poverty, for had they not sacrificed everything to send him to England and Oxford University Driven by creditors or pressing desires, earlier Baildons had long ago cheaply disposed of valuable properties. Brother and sister never ceased to remind each other of the depressing fact that their ancestors had wasted their inheritance. This, in fact, was their only other point of agreement. A few years earlier Agatha had announced that she intended doing something about repairing the family fortunes. The many empty rooms could be rented to selected guests. She would establish, not a boarding house, but a home for ladies and gentlemen, and make a tidy profit. She threw herself into the venture with a noisy fury. Old furniture was polished; rugs and carpets were beaten, floors painted, long-stored mattresses, pillows and bed linen aired and sweetened in the sun. Agatha, with a fine air of defiance, took the copy for a modest advertisement to the press. Two guests were lured by the promise of beautiful gourmet meals, a home atmosphere in an historic mansion, the company of well-brought-up ladies and gentlemen. The two, one a bank clerk and the other a maiden lady employed in a bookshop, arrived simultaneously, whereupon Agatha condescended to show them to their room, and promptly forgot about them. There was no hot water. Dinner time found Baildon and Agatha sharing half a cold chicken and a few boiled potatoes in the dining room’s gloomy vastness. When the guests came timidly to inquire about the dining-hours, and to point out that there were no sheets on the beds, no water in the pots, no towels on their racks, Agatha reminded them that the Baidons were not inn-keepers, and then treated them to an account of the family’s past glories. Agatha’s venture was unlikely to succeed because

A.she and her brother were very indifferent and impolite to the guests.
B.she got no support from her family.
C.the furniture there is too inadequate.
D.she lacked experience of domestic work.

19.A leading climate change scientist says the warming of the planet would have a devastating impact on the poor and the hungry. The chairman of the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel (31) Climate Change, Rajendra Pachauri, says the (32) of climate change will be mainly felt in the areas of health and agriculture. He says it is the poor (33) would suffer the most from the change. He says heat waves in different parts of the world are making people ill and (34) many deaths. He says the situation is (35) bad in poor countries that do not have the infrastructure or necessary means to (36) people from extreme heat. (37) the agricultural effects of climate change, Pachauri says a great many people are (38) on rain-fed agriculture. Climate change would lead to an increase in precipitation ( 降水 ) in temperate areas, ( 39 ) a decrease in tropical and sub-tropical areas, where most of the people on Earth live. Those who depend on agriculture for their (40) , he says, would be (41) affected by the decrease. "At the global level, with the decline in agricultural (42) , in the largest countries of the world or the most (43) countries of the world, we will find that food stocks will (44) ," Pachauri said. "And, as a matter of fact, that has already started happening. The result of that will be a(n) (45) in food prices. Now, (46) in turn, hits the poorest of the poor very badly. "As countermeasures, the farmers will have to (47) measures such as the more (48) use of water resources and new strains of crops that can (49) higher temperatures and lower (50) of water will have to be developed.

A.Speaking of
B.Speaking about
C.Talking of
D.Talking about

20.A leading climate change scientist says the warming of the planet would have a devastating impact on the poor and the hungry. The chairman of the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel (31) Climate Change, Rajendra Pachauri, says the (32) of climate change will be mainly felt in the areas of health and agriculture. He says it is the poor (33) would suffer the most from the change. He says heat waves in different parts of the world are making people ill and (34) many deaths. He says the situation is (35) bad in poor countries that do not have the infrastructure or necessary means to (36) people from extreme heat. (37) the agricultural effects of climate change, Pachauri says a great many people are (38) on rain-fed agriculture. Climate change would lead to an increase in precipitation ( 降水 ) in temperate areas, ( 39 ) a decrease in tropical and sub-tropical areas, where most of the people on Earth live. Those who depend on agriculture for their (40) , he says, would be (41) affected by the decrease. "At the global level, with the decline in agricultural (42) , in the largest countries of the world or the most (43) countries of the world, we will find that food stocks will (44) ," Pachauri said. "And, as a matter of fact, that has already started happening. The result of that will be a(n) (45) in food prices. Now, (46) in turn, hits the poorest of the poor very badly. "As countermeasures, the farmers will have to (47) measures such as the more (48) use of water resources and new strains of crops that can (49) higher temperatures and lower (50) of water will have to be developed.

A.depending
B.dependent
C.dependable
D.dependant

21.A leading climate change scientist says the warming of the planet would have a devastating impact on the poor and the hungry. The chairman of the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel (31) Climate Change, Rajendra Pachauri, says the (32) of climate change will be mainly felt in the areas of health and agriculture. He says it is the poor (33) would suffer the most from the change. He says heat waves in different parts of the world are making people ill and (34) many deaths. He says the situation is (35) bad in poor countries that do not have the infrastructure or necessary means to (36) people from extreme heat. (37) the agricultural effects of climate change, Pachauri says a great many people are (38) on rain-fed agriculture. Climate change would lead to an increase in precipitation ( 降水 ) in temperate areas, ( 39 ) a decrease in tropical and sub-tropical areas, where most of the people on Earth live. Those who depend on agriculture for their (40) , he says, would be (41) affected by the decrease. "At the global level, with the decline in agricultural (42) , in the largest countries of the world or the most (43) countries of the world, we will find that food stocks will (44) ," Pachauri said. "And, as a matter of fact, that has already started happening. The result of that will be a(n) (45) in food prices. Now, (46) in turn, hits the poorest of the poor very badly. "As countermeasures, the farmers will have to (47) measures such as the more (48) use of water resources and new strains of crops that can (49) higher temperatures and lower (50) of water will have to be developed.

A.however
B.and
C.but
D.or

22.A leading climate change scientist says the warming of the planet would have a devastating impact on the poor and the hungry. The chairman of the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel (31) Climate Change, Rajendra Pachauri, says the (32) of climate change will be mainly felt in the areas of health and agriculture. He says it is the poor (33) would suffer the most from the change. He says heat waves in different parts of the world are making people ill and (34) many deaths. He says the situation is (35) bad in poor countries that do not have the infrastructure or necessary means to (36) people from extreme heat. (37) the agricultural effects of climate change, Pachauri says a great many people are (38) on rain-fed agriculture. Climate change would lead to an increase in precipitation ( 降水 ) in temperate areas, ( 39 ) a decrease in tropical and sub-tropical areas, where most of the people on Earth live. Those who depend on agriculture for their (40) , he says, would be (41) affected by the decrease. "At the global level, with the decline in agricultural (42) , in the largest countries of the world or the most (43) countries of the world, we will find that food stocks will (44) ," Pachauri said. "And, as a matter of fact, that has already started happening. The result of that will be a(n) (45) in food prices. Now, (46) in turn, hits the poorest of the poor very badly. "As countermeasures, the farmers will have to (47) measures such as the more (48) use of water resources and new strains of crops that can (49) higher temperatures and lower (50) of water will have to be developed.

A.living
B.livelihood
C.livings
D.livelihoods

23.A leading climate change scientist says the warming of the planet would have a devastating impact on the poor and the hungry. The chairman of the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel (31) Climate Change, Rajendra Pachauri, says the (32) of climate change will be mainly felt in the areas of health and agriculture. He says it is the poor (33) would suffer the most from the change. He says heat waves in different parts of the world are making people ill and (34) many deaths. He says the situation is (35) bad in poor countries that do not have the infrastructure or necessary means to (36) people from extreme heat. (37) the agricultural effects of climate change, Pachauri says a great many people are (38) on rain-fed agriculture. Climate change would lead to an increase in precipitation ( 降水 ) in temperate areas, ( 39 ) a decrease in tropical and sub-tropical areas, where most of the people on Earth live. Those who depend on agriculture for their (40) , he says, would be (41) affected by the decrease. "At the global level, with the decline in agricultural (42) , in the largest countries of the world or the most (43) countries of the world, we will find that food stocks will (44) ," Pachauri said. "And, as a matter of fact, that has already started happening. The result of that will be a(n) (45) in food prices. Now, (46) in turn, hits the poorest of the poor very badly. "As countermeasures, the farmers will have to (47) measures such as the more (48) use of water resources and new strains of crops that can (49) higher temperatures and lower (50) of water will have to be developed.

A.positively
B.negatively
C.adversely
D.adequately

24.A leading climate change scientist says the warming of the planet would have a devastating impact on the poor and the hungry. The chairman of the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel (31) Climate Change, Rajendra Pachauri, says the (32) of climate change will be mainly felt in the areas of health and agriculture. He says it is the poor (33) would suffer the most from the change. He says heat waves in different parts of the world are making people ill and (34) many deaths. He says the situation is (35) bad in poor countries that do not have the infrastructure or necessary means to (36) people from extreme heat. (37) the agricultural effects of climate change, Pachauri says a great many people are (38) on rain-fed agriculture. Climate change would lead to an increase in precipitation ( 降水 ) in temperate areas, ( 39 ) a decrease in tropical and sub-tropical areas, where most of the people on Earth live. Those who depend on agriculture for their (40) , he says, would be (41) affected by the decrease. "At the global level, with the decline in agricultural (42) , in the largest countries of the world or the most (43) countries of the world, we will find that food stocks will (44) ," Pachauri said. "And, as a matter of fact, that has already started happening. The result of that will be a(n) (45) in food prices. Now, (46) in turn, hits the poorest of the poor very badly. "As countermeasures, the farmers will have to (47) measures such as the more (48) use of water resources and new strains of crops that can (49) higher temperatures and lower (50) of water will have to be developed.

A.productivity
B.production
C.products
D.productions

25.A leading climate change scientist says the warming of the planet would have a devastating impact on the poor and the hungry. The chairman of the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel (31) Climate Change, Rajendra Pachauri, says the (32) of climate change will be mainly felt in the areas of health and agriculture. He says it is the poor (33) would suffer the most from the change. He says heat waves in different parts of the world are making people ill and (34) many deaths. He says the situation is (35) bad in poor countries that do not have the infrastructure or necessary means to (36) people from extreme heat. (37) the agricultural effects of climate change, Pachauri says a great many people are (38) on rain-fed agriculture. Climate change would lead to an increase in precipitation ( 降水 ) in temperate areas, ( 39 ) a decrease in tropical and sub-tropical areas, where most of the people on Earth live. Those who depend on agriculture for their (40) , he says, would be (41) affected by the decrease. "At the global level, with the decline in agricultural (42) , in the largest countries of the world or the most (43) countries of the world, we will find that food stocks will (44) ," Pachauri said. "And, as a matter of fact, that has already started happening. The result of that will be a(n) (45) in food prices. Now, (46) in turn, hits the poorest of the poor very badly. "As countermeasures, the farmers will have to (47) measures such as the more (48) use of water resources and new strains of crops that can (49) higher temperatures and lower (50) of water will have to be developed.

A.poor
B.remote
C.populous
D.underdeveloped

26.A leading climate change scientist says the warming of the planet would have a devastating impact on the poor and the hungry. The chairman of the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel (31) Climate Change, Rajendra Pachauri, says the (32) of climate change will be mainly felt in the areas of health and agriculture. He says it is the poor (33) would suffer the most from the change. He says heat waves in different parts of the world are making people ill and (34) many deaths. He says the situation is (35) bad in poor countries that do not have the infrastructure or necessary means to (36) people from extreme heat. (37) the agricultural effects of climate change, Pachauri says a great many people are (38) on rain-fed agriculture. Climate change would lead to an increase in precipitation ( 降水 ) in temperate areas, ( 39 ) a decrease in tropical and sub-tropical areas, where most of the people on Earth live. Those who depend on agriculture for their (40) , he says, would be (41) affected by the decrease. "At the global level, with the decline in agricultural (42) , in the largest countries of the world or the most (43) countries of the world, we will find that food stocks will (44) ," Pachauri said. "And, as a matter of fact, that has already started happening. The result of that will be a(n) (45) in food prices. Now, (46) in turn, hits the poorest of the poor very badly. "As countermeasures, the farmers will have to (47) measures such as the more (48) use of water resources and new strains of crops that can (49) higher temperatures and lower (50) of water will have to be developed.

A.minimize
B.demolish
C.diminish
D.devastate

27.A leading climate change scientist says the warming of the planet would have a devastating impact on the poor and the hungry. The chairman of the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel (31) Climate Change, Rajendra Pachauri, says the (32) of climate change will be mainly felt in the areas of health and agriculture. He says it is the poor (33) would suffer the most from the change. He says heat waves in different parts of the world are making people ill and (34) many deaths. He says the situation is (35) bad in poor countries that do not have the infrastructure or necessary means to (36) people from extreme heat. (37) the agricultural effects of climate change, Pachauri says a great many people are (38) on rain-fed agriculture. Climate change would lead to an increase in precipitation ( 降水 ) in temperate areas, ( 39 ) a decrease in tropical and sub-tropical areas, where most of the people on Earth live. Those who depend on agriculture for their (40) , he says, would be (41) affected by the decrease. "At the global level, with the decline in agricultural (42) , in the largest countries of the world or the most (43) countries of the world, we will find that food stocks will (44) ," Pachauri said. "And, as a matter of fact, that has already started happening. The result of that will be a(n) (45) in food prices. Now, (46) in turn, hits the poorest of the poor very badly. "As countermeasures, the farmers will have to (47) measures such as the more (48) use of water resources and new strains of crops that can (49) higher temperatures and lower (50) of water will have to be developed.

A.decrease
B.increase
C.inflate
D.deflate

28.A leading climate change scientist says the warming of the planet would have a devastating impact on the poor and the hungry. The chairman of the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel (31) Climate Change, Rajendra Pachauri, says the (32) of climate change will be mainly felt in the areas of health and agriculture. He says it is the poor (33) would suffer the most from the change. He says heat waves in different parts of the world are making people ill and (34) many deaths. He says the situation is (35) bad in poor countries that do not have the infrastructure or necessary means to (36) people from extreme heat. (37) the agricultural effects of climate change, Pachauri says a great many people are (38) on rain-fed agriculture. Climate change would lead to an increase in precipitation ( 降水 ) in temperate areas, ( 39 ) a decrease in tropical and sub-tropical areas, where most of the people on Earth live. Those who depend on agriculture for their (40) , he says, would be (41) affected by the decrease. "At the global level, with the decline in agricultural (42) , in the largest countries of the world or the most (43) countries of the world, we will find that food stocks will (44) ," Pachauri said. "And, as a matter of fact, that has already started happening. The result of that will be a(n) (45) in food prices. Now, (46) in turn, hits the poorest of the poor very badly. "As countermeasures, the farmers will have to (47) measures such as the more (48) use of water resources and new strains of crops that can (49) higher temperatures and lower (50) of water will have to be developed.

A.which
B.what
C.that
D.as

29.A leading climate change scientist says the warming of the planet would have a devastating impact on the poor and the hungry. The chairman of the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel (31) Climate Change, Rajendra Pachauri, says the (32) of climate change will be mainly felt in the areas of health and agriculture. He says it is the poor (33) would suffer the most from the change. He says heat waves in different parts of the world are making people ill and (34) many deaths. He says the situation is (35) bad in poor countries that do not have the infrastructure or necessary means to (36) people from extreme heat. (37) the agricultural effects of climate change, Pachauri says a great many people are (38) on rain-fed agriculture. Climate change would lead to an increase in precipitation ( 降水 ) in temperate areas, ( 39 ) a decrease in tropical and sub-tropical areas, where most of the people on Earth live. Those who depend on agriculture for their (40) , he says, would be (41) affected by the decrease. "At the global level, with the decline in agricultural (42) , in the largest countries of the world or the most (43) countries of the world, we will find that food stocks will (44) ," Pachauri said. "And, as a matter of fact, that has already started happening. The result of that will be a(n) (45) in food prices. Now, (46) in turn, hits the poorest of the poor very badly. "As countermeasures, the farmers will have to (47) measures such as the more (48) use of water resources and new strains of crops that can (49) higher temperatures and lower (50) of water will have to be developed.

A.adapt to
B.accept
C.approve
D.adopt

30.A leading climate change scientist says the warming of the planet would have a devastating impact on the poor and the hungry. The chairman of the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel (31) Climate Change, Rajendra Pachauri, says the (32) of climate change will be mainly felt in the areas of health and agriculture. He says it is the poor (33) would suffer the most from the change. He says heat waves in different parts of the world are making people ill and (34) many deaths. He says the situation is (35) bad in poor countries that do not have the infrastructure or necessary means to (36) people from extreme heat. (37) the agricultural effects of climate change, Pachauri says a great many people are (38) on rain-fed agriculture. Climate change would lead to an increase in precipitation ( 降水 ) in temperate areas, ( 39 ) a decrease in tropical and sub-tropical areas, where most of the people on Earth live. Those who depend on agriculture for their (40) , he says, would be (41) affected by the decrease. "At the global level, with the decline in agricultural (42) , in the largest countries of the world or the most (43) countries of the world, we will find that food stocks will (44) ," Pachauri said. "And, as a matter of fact, that has already started happening. The result of that will be a(n) (45) in food prices. Now, (46) in turn, hits the poorest of the poor very badly. "As countermeasures, the farmers will have to (47) measures such as the more (48) use of water resources and new strains of crops that can (49) higher temperatures and lower (50) of water will have to be developed.

A.proficient
B.efficient
C.effective
D.cautious

31.A leading climate change scientist says the warming of the planet would have a devastating impact on the poor and the hungry. The chairman of the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel (31) Climate Change, Rajendra Pachauri, says the (32) of climate change will be mainly felt in the areas of health and agriculture. He says it is the poor (33) would suffer the most from the change. He says heat waves in different parts of the world are making people ill and (34) many deaths. He says the situation is (35) bad in poor countries that do not have the infrastructure or necessary means to (36) people from extreme heat. (37) the agricultural effects of climate change, Pachauri says a great many people are (38) on rain-fed agriculture. Climate change would lead to an increase in precipitation ( 降水 ) in temperate areas, ( 39 ) a decrease in tropical and sub-tropical areas, where most of the people on Earth live. Those who depend on agriculture for their (40) , he says, would be (41) affected by the decrease. "At the global level, with the decline in agricultural (42) , in the largest countries of the world or the most (43) countries of the world, we will find that food stocks will (44) ," Pachauri said. "And, as a matter of fact, that has already started happening. The result of that will be a(n) (45) in food prices. Now, (46) in turn, hits the poorest of the poor very badly. "As countermeasures, the farmers will have to (47) measures such as the more (48) use of water resources and new strains of crops that can (49) higher temperatures and lower (50) of water will have to be developed.

A.withhold
B.resist
C.withstand
D.persist

32.A leading climate change scientist says the warming of the planet would have a devastating impact on the poor and the hungry. The chairman of the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel (31) Climate Change, Rajendra Pachauri, says the (32) of climate change will be mainly felt in the areas of health and agriculture. He says it is the poor (33) would suffer the most from the change. He says heat waves in different parts of the world are making people ill and (34) many deaths. He says the situation is (35) bad in poor countries that do not have the infrastructure or necessary means to (36) people from extreme heat. (37) the agricultural effects of climate change, Pachauri says a great many people are (38) on rain-fed agriculture. Climate change would lead to an increase in precipitation ( 降水 ) in temperate areas, ( 39 ) a decrease in tropical and sub-tropical areas, where most of the people on Earth live. Those who depend on agriculture for their (40) , he says, would be (41) affected by the decrease. "At the global level, with the decline in agricultural (42) , in the largest countries of the world or the most (43) countries of the world, we will find that food stocks will (44) ," Pachauri said. "And, as a matter of fact, that has already started happening. The result of that will be a(n) (45) in food prices. Now, (46) in turn, hits the poorest of the poor very badly. "As countermeasures, the farmers will have to (47) measures such as the more (48) use of water resources and new strains of crops that can (49) higher temperatures and lower (50) of water will have to be developed.

A.consumptions
B.amounts
C.quantities
D.usages

33.Space Tourism Make your reservations now. The space tourism industry is officially open for business, and tickets are going for a mere $20 million for a one-week stay in space. Despite reluctance from National Air and Space Administration (NASA) , Russia made American businessman Dennis Tito the world’’s first space tourist. Tito flew into space aboard a Russian Soyuz rocket that arrived at the International Space Station (ISS) on April 30, 2001. The second space tourist, South African businessman Mark Shuttleworth, took off aboard the Russian Soyuz on April 25,2002, also bound for the ISS. Lance Bass of N Sync was supposed to be the third to make the $20 million trip, but he did not join the three-man crew as they blasted off on October 30,2002, due to lack of payment. Probably the most incredible aspect of this proposed space tour was that NASA approved of it.These trips are the beginning of what could be a profitable 21st century industry. There are already several space tourism companies planning to build suborbital vehicles and orbital cities within the next two decades. These companies have invested millions, believing that the space tourism industry is on the verge of taking off. In 1997, NASA published a report concluding that selling trips into space to private citizens could be worth billions of dollars. A Japanese report supports these findings, and projects that space tourism could be a $10 billion per year industry within the next two decades. The only obstacles to opening up space to tourists are the space agencies, who are concerned with safety and the development of a reliable, reusable launch vehicle. Space Accommodations Russia’’s Mir space station was supposed to be the first destination for space tourists. But in March 2001, the Russian Aerospace Agency brought Mir down into the Pacific Ocean. As it turned out, bringing down Mir only temporarily delayed the first tourist trip into space. The Mir crash did cancel plans for a new reality-based game show from NBC, which was going to be called Destination Mir. The Survivor-like TV show was scheduled to air in fall 2001. Participants on the show were to go through training at Russia’’s cosmonaut (宇航员) training center, Star City. Each week, one of the participants would be eliminated from the show, with the winner receiving a trip to the Mir space station. The Mir crash has ruled out NBC’’s space plans for now. NASA is against beginning space tourism until the International Space Station is completed in 2006. Russia is not alone in its interest in space tourism. There are several projects underway to commercialize space travel. Here are a few of the groups that might take tourists to space: -Space Island Group is going to build a ring-shaped, rotating "commercial space infrastructure (基础结构)" that will resemble the Discovery spacecraft in the movie "2001: A Space Odyssey. "Space Island says it will build its space city out of empty NASA space-shuttle fuel tanks (to start, it should take around 12 or so) , and place it about 400 miles above Earth. The space city will rotate once per minute to create a gravitational pull one-third as strong as Earth’’s. -According to their vision statement, Space Adventures plans to "fly tens of thousands of people in space over the next 10-15 years and beyond, around the moon, and back, from spaceports both on Earth and in space, to and from private space stations, and aboard dozens of different vehicles..." -Even Hilton Hotels has shown interest in the space tourism industry and the possibility of building or co-funding a space hotel. However, the company did say that it believes such a space hotel is 15 to 20 years away. Initially, space tourism will offer simple accommodations at best. For instance, if the International Space Station is used as a tourist attraction, guests won’’t find the luxurious surroundings of a hotel room on Earth. It has been designed for conducting research, not entertainment. However, the first generation of space hotels should offer tourists a much more comfortable experience. In regard to a concept for a space hotel initially planned by Space Island, such a hotel could offer guests every convenience they might find at a hotel on Earth, and some they might not. The small gravitational pull created by the rotating space city would allow space-tourists and residents to walk around and function normally within the structure. Everything from running water to a recycling plant to medical facilities would be possible. Additionally, space tourists would even be able to take space walks. Many of these companies believe that they have to offer an extremely enjoyable experience in order for passengers to pay thousands, if not millions, of dollars to ride into space. So will space create another separation between the haves and have-nots The Most Expensive Vacation Will space be an exotic retreat reserved for only the wealthy Or will middle-class folks have

A.Y
B.N
C.NG

34.Space Tourism Make your reservations now. The space tourism industry is officially open for business, and tickets are going for a mere $20 million for a one-week stay in space. Despite reluctance from National Air and Space Administration (NASA) , Russia made American businessman Dennis Tito the world’’s first space tourist. Tito flew into space aboard a Russian Soyuz rocket that arrived at the International Space Station (ISS) on April 30, 2001. The second space tourist, South African businessman Mark Shuttleworth, took off aboard the Russian Soyuz on April 25,2002, also bound for the ISS. Lance Bass of N Sync was supposed to be the third to make the $20 million trip, but he did not join the three-man crew as they blasted off on October 30,2002, due to lack of payment. Probably the most incredible aspect of this proposed space tour was that NASA approved of it.These trips are the beginning of what could be a profitable 21st century industry. There are already several space tourism companies planning to build suborbital vehicles and orbital cities within the next two decades. These companies have invested millions, believing that the space tourism industry is on the verge of taking off. In 1997, NASA published a report concluding that selling trips into space to private citizens could be worth billions of dollars. A Japanese report supports these findings, and projects that space tourism could be a $10 billion per year industry within the next two decades. The only obstacles to opening up space to tourists are the space agencies, who are concerned with safety and the development of a reliable, reusable launch vehicle. Space Accommodations Russia’’s Mir space station was supposed to be the first destination for space tourists. But in March 2001, the Russian Aerospace Agency brought Mir down into the Pacific Ocean. As it turned out, bringing down Mir only temporarily delayed the first tourist trip into space. The Mir crash did cancel plans for a new reality-based game show from NBC, which was going to be called Destination Mir. The Survivor-like TV show was scheduled to air in fall 2001. Participants on the show were to go through training at Russia’’s cosmonaut (宇航员) training center, Star City. Each week, one of the participants would be eliminated from the show, with the winner receiving a trip to the Mir space station. The Mir crash has ruled out NBC’’s space plans for now. NASA is against beginning space tourism until the International Space Station is completed in 2006. Russia is not alone in its interest in space tourism. There are several projects underway to commercialize space travel. Here are a few of the groups that might take tourists to space: -Space Island Group is going to build a ring-shaped, rotating "commercial space infrastructure (基础结构)" that will resemble the Discovery spacecraft in the movie "2001: A Space Odyssey. "Space Island says it will build its space city out of empty NASA space-shuttle fuel tanks (to start, it should take around 12 or so) , and place it about 400 miles above Earth. The space city will rotate once per minute to create a gravitational pull one-third as strong as Earth’’s. -According to their vision statement, Space Adventures plans to "fly tens of thousands of people in space over the next 10-15 years and beyond, around the moon, and back, from spaceports both on Earth and in space, to and from private space stations, and aboard dozens of different vehicles..." -Even Hilton Hotels has shown interest in the space tourism industry and the possibility of building or co-funding a space hotel. However, the company did say that it believes such a space hotel is 15 to 20 years away. Initially, space tourism will offer simple accommodations at best. For instance, if the International Space Station is used as a tourist attraction, guests won’’t find the luxurious surroundings of a hotel room on Earth. It has been designed for conducting research, not entertainment. However, the first generation of space hotels should offer tourists a much more comfortable experience. In regard to a concept for a space hotel initially planned by Space Island, such a hotel could offer guests every convenience they might find at a hotel on Earth, and some they might not. The small gravitational pull created by the rotating space city would allow space-tourists and residents to walk around and function normally within the structure. Everything from running water to a recycling plant to medical facilities would be possible. Additionally, space tourists would even be able to take space walks. Many of these companies believe that they have to offer an extremely enjoyable experience in order for passengers to pay thousands, if not millions, of dollars to ride into space. So will space create another separation between the haves and have-nots The Most Expensive Vacation Will space be an exotic retreat reserved for only the wealthy Or will middle-class folks have

A.Y
B.N
C.NG

35.Space Tourism Make your reservations now. The space tourism industry is officially open for business, and tickets are going for a mere $20 million for a one-week stay in space. Despite reluctance from National Air and Space Administration (NASA) , Russia made American businessman Dennis Tito the world’’s first space tourist. Tito flew into space aboard a Russian Soyuz rocket that arrived at the International Space Station (ISS) on April 30, 2001. The second space tourist, South African businessman Mark Shuttleworth, took off aboard the Russian Soyuz on April 25,2002, also bound for the ISS. Lance Bass of N Sync was supposed to be the third to make the $20 million trip, but he did not join the three-man crew as they blasted off on October 30,2002, due to lack of payment. Probably the most incredible aspect of this proposed space tour was that NASA approved of it.These trips are the beginning of what could be a profitable 21st century industry. There are already several space tourism companies planning to build suborbital vehicles and orbital cities within the next two decades. These companies have invested millions, believing that the space tourism industry is on the verge of taking off. In 1997, NASA published a report concluding that selling trips into space to private citizens could be worth billions of dollars. A Japanese report supports these findings, and projects that space tourism could be a $10 billion per year industry within the next two decades. The only obstacles to opening up space to tourists are the space agencies, who are concerned with safety and the development of a reliable, reusable launch vehicle. Space Accommodations Russia’’s Mir space station was supposed to be the first destination for space tourists. But in March 2001, the Russian Aerospace Agency brought Mir down into the Pacific Ocean. As it turned out, bringing down Mir only temporarily delayed the first tourist trip into space. The Mir crash did cancel plans for a new reality-based game show from NBC, which was going to be called Destination Mir. The Survivor-like TV show was scheduled to air in fall 2001. Participants on the show were to go through training at Russia’’s cosmonaut (宇航员) training center, Star City. Each week, one of the participants would be eliminated from the show, with the winner receiving a trip to the Mir space station. The Mir crash has ruled out NBC’’s space plans for now. NASA is against beginning space tourism until the International Space Station is completed in 2006. Russia is not alone in its interest in space tourism. There are several projects underway to commercialize space travel. Here are a few of the groups that might take tourists to space: -Space Island Group is going to build a ring-shaped, rotating "commercial space infrastructure (基础结构)" that will resemble the Discovery spacecraft in the movie "2001: A Space Odyssey. "Space Island says it will build its space city out of empty NASA space-shuttle fuel tanks (to start, it should take around 12 or so) , and place it about 400 miles above Earth. The space city will rotate once per minute to create a gravitational pull one-third as strong as Earth’’s. -According to their vision statement, Space Adventures plans to "fly tens of thousands of people in space over the next 10-15 years and beyond, around the moon, and back, from spaceports both on Earth and in space, to and from private space stations, and aboard dozens of different vehicles..." -Even Hilton Hotels has shown interest in the space tourism industry and the possibility of building or co-funding a space hotel. However, the company did say that it believes such a space hotel is 15 to 20 years away. Initially, space tourism will offer simple accommodations at best. For instance, if the International Space Station is used as a tourist attraction, guests won’’t find the luxurious surroundings of a hotel room on Earth. It has been designed for conducting research, not entertainment. However, the first generation of space hotels should offer tourists a much more comfortable experience. In regard to a concept for a space hotel initially planned by Space Island, such a hotel could offer guests every convenience they might find at a hotel on Earth, and some they might not. The small gravitational pull created by the rotating space city would allow space-tourists and residents to walk around and function normally within the structure. Everything from running water to a recycling plant to medical facilities would be possible. Additionally, space tourists would even be able to take space walks. Many of these companies believe that they have to offer an extremely enjoyable experience in order for passengers to pay thousands, if not millions, of dollars to ride into space. So will space create another separation between the haves and have-nots The Most Expensive Vacation Will space be an exotic retreat reserved for only the wealthy Or will middle-class folks have

A.Y
B.N
C.NG

36.I first became aware of the unemployment problem in 1928. At that time I had just come back from Burma, where unemployment was only a word, and I had gone to Burma when I was still a boy and the post-war boom was not quite over. When I first saw unemployed men at close quarters, the thing that horrified and amazed me was to find that many of them were ashamed of being unemployed. I was very ignorant, but not so ignorant as to imagine that when the loss of foreign markets pushes two million men out of work, those two million are to blame. But at that time nobody cared to admit that unemployment was inevitable, because this meant admitting that it would probably continue. The middle classes were still talking about "lazy idle loafers on the dole" and saying that "these men could all find work if they wanted to," and naturally these opinions affected the working class themselves. I remember the shock of astonishment it gave me, when I first met with tramps and beggars, to find that a fair proportion, per- haps a quarter, of these beings whom I had been taught to regard as cynical parasites, were decent young miners and cotton workers gazing at their destiny with the same sort of dumb amazement as an animal in trap. They simply could not understand what was happening to them. They had been brought up to work, but it seemed as if they were never going to have the chance of working again. In their circumstance it was inevitable, at first, that they should be filled with a feeling of personal degradation. That was the attitude towards unemployment in those days: it was a disaster which happened to you as an individual and for which you were to blame. The author did not learn of the unemployment problem until 1928 because _______.

A.he had spent his childhood in Burma
B.people in Burma hardly talked about unemployment
C.the English economy collapsed after he had gone abroad
D.England had been enjoying economic prosperity while he was in Burma

37.Space Tourism Make your reservations now. The space tourism industry is officially open for business, and tickets are going for a mere $20 million for a one-week stay in space. Despite reluctance from National Air and Space Administration (NASA) , Russia made American businessman Dennis Tito the world’’s first space tourist. Tito flew into space aboard a Russian Soyuz rocket that arrived at the International Space Station (ISS) on April 30, 2001. The second space tourist, South African businessman Mark Shuttleworth, took off aboard the Russian Soyuz on April 25,2002, also bound for the ISS. Lance Bass of N Sync was supposed to be the third to make the $20 million trip, but he did not join the three-man crew as they blasted off on October 30,2002, due to lack of payment. Probably the most incredible aspect of this proposed space tour was that NASA approved of it.These trips are the beginning of what could be a profitable 21st century industry. There are already several space tourism companies planning to build suborbital vehicles and orbital cities within the next two decades. These companies have invested millions, believing that the space tourism industry is on the verge of taking off. In 1997, NASA published a report concluding that selling trips into space to private citizens could be worth billions of dollars. A Japanese report supports these findings, and projects that space tourism could be a $10 billion per year industry within the next two decades. The only obstacles to opening up space to tourists are the space agencies, who are concerned with safety and the development of a reliable, reusable launch vehicle. Space Accommodations Russia’’s Mir space station was supposed to be the first destination for space tourists. But in March 2001, the Russian Aerospace Agency brought Mir down into the Pacific Ocean. As it turned out, bringing down Mir only temporarily delayed the first tourist trip into space. The Mir crash did cancel plans for a new reality-based game show from NBC, which was going to be called Destination Mir. The Survivor-like TV show was scheduled to air in fall 2001. Participants on the show were to go through training at Russia’’s cosmonaut (宇航员) training center, Star City. Each week, one of the participants would be eliminated from the show, with the winner receiving a trip to the Mir space station. The Mir crash has ruled out NBC’’s space plans for now. NASA is against beginning space tourism until the International Space Station is completed in 2006. Russia is not alone in its interest in space tourism. There are several projects underway to commercialize space travel. Here are a few of the groups that might take tourists to space: -Space Island Group is going to build a ring-shaped, rotating "commercial space infrastructure (基础结构)" that will resemble the Discovery spacecraft in the movie "2001: A Space Odyssey. "Space Island says it will build its space city out of empty NASA space-shuttle fuel tanks (to start, it should take around 12 or so) , and place it about 400 miles above Earth. The space city will rotate once per minute to create a gravitational pull one-third as strong as Earth’’s. -According to their vision statement, Space Adventures plans to "fly tens of thousands of people in space over the next 10-15 years and beyond, around the moon, and back, from spaceports both on Earth and in space, to and from private space stations, and aboard dozens of different vehicles..." -Even Hilton Hotels has shown interest in the space tourism industry and the possibility of building or co-funding a space hotel. However, the company did say that it believes such a space hotel is 15 to 20 years away. Initially, space tourism will offer simple accommodations at best. For instance, if the International Space Station is used as a tourist attraction, guests won’’t find the luxurious surroundings of a hotel room on Earth. It has been designed for conducting research, not entertainment. However, the first generation of space hotels should offer tourists a much more comfortable experience. In regard to a concept for a space hotel initially planned by Space Island, such a hotel could offer guests every convenience they might find at a hotel on Earth, and some they might not. The small gravitational pull created by the rotating space city would allow space-tourists and residents to walk around and function normally within the structure. Everything from running water to a recycling plant to medical facilities would be possible. Additionally, space tourists would even be able to take space walks. Many of these companies believe that they have to offer an extremely enjoyable experience in order for passengers to pay thousands, if not millions, of dollars to ride into space. So will space create another separation between the haves and have-nots The Most Expensive Vacation Will space be an exotic retreat reserved for only the wealthy Or will middle-class folks have

A.Y
B.N
C.NG

38.I first became aware of the unemployment problem in 1928. At that time I had just come back from Burma, where unemployment was only a word, and I had gone to Burma when I was still a boy and the post-war boom was not quite over. When I first saw unemployed men at close quarters, the thing that horrified and amazed me was to find that many of them were ashamed of being unemployed. I was very ignorant, but not so ignorant as to imagine that when the loss of foreign markets pushes two million men out of work, those two million are to blame. But at that time nobody cared to admit that unemployment was inevitable, because this meant admitting that it would probably continue. The middle classes were still talking about "lazy idle loafers on the dole" and saying that "these men could all find work if they wanted to," and naturally these opinions affected the working class themselves. I remember the shock of astonishment it gave me, when I first met with tramps and beggars, to find that a fair proportion, per- haps a quarter, of these beings whom I had been taught to regard as cynical parasites, were decent young miners and cotton workers gazing at their destiny with the same sort of dumb amazement as an animal in trap. They simply could not understand what was happening to them. They had been brought up to work, but it seemed as if they were never going to have the chance of working again. In their circumstance it was inevitable, at first, that they should be filled with a feeling of personal degradation. That was the attitude towards unemployment in those days: it was a disaster which happened to you as an individual and for which you were to blame. Many of the unemployed felt ashamed of their condition because _______.

A.they imagined they were to blame for being out of work
B.nobody wanted to admit that unemployment was inevitable
C.they had to admit that unemployment would probably continue
D.they felt the middle classes were right to say they could find work if they wanted to

39.I first became aware of the unemployment problem in 1928. At that time I had just come back from Burma, where unemployment was only a word, and I had gone to Burma when I was still a boy and the post-war boom was not quite over. When I first saw unemployed men at close quarters, the thing that horrified and amazed me was to find that many of them were ashamed of being unemployed. I was very ignorant, but not so ignorant as to imagine that when the loss of foreign markets pushes two million men out of work, those two million are to blame. But at that time nobody cared to admit that unemployment was inevitable, because this meant admitting that it would probably continue. The middle classes were still talking about "lazy idle loafers on the dole" and saying that "these men could all find work if they wanted to," and naturally these opinions affected the working class themselves. I remember the shock of astonishment it gave me, when I first met with tramps and beggars, to find that a fair proportion, per- haps a quarter, of these beings whom I had been taught to regard as cynical parasites, were decent young miners and cotton workers gazing at their destiny with the same sort of dumb amazement as an animal in trap. They simply could not understand what was happening to them. They had been brought up to work, but it seemed as if they were never going to have the chance of working again. In their circumstance it was inevitable, at first, that they should be filled with a feeling of personal degradation. That was the attitude towards unemployment in those days: it was a disaster which happened to you as an individual and for which you were to blame. About a quarter of the tramps and beggars the author met were _______.

A.cynical parasites
B.once quite good at mining and making cotton
C.like animals in trap
D.young workers bewildered by what had happened to them

40.The Internet has spawned (大量输出) a sick new craze: violence porn. Daniel Pearl and Nick Berg had three awful things in common. Both were Jewish Americans who were kidnapped by Islamic terrorists. Both were beheaded (斩首). And both had their excruciating (剧烈的) deaths recorded and then replayed thousands, perhaps millions, of times over the Internet. One of the websites that featured the killing of Pearl, the Wall Street Journal reporter abducted in Pakistan in 2002, was also among the first to post the footage of Berg’’s execution two years later in Iraq. " Yes, we have the American beheading video," its home page proudly declared. Is this a website sponsored by militant Islamists Nope. It’’s a site based here in the United States with the sole mission of celebrating stomach-turning violence. Under the motto "Can You Handle Life " the site displays hundreds of images of dead, dying and mangled human beings. Some of its recent offerings were listed under titles such as "Shocking Murder Images," "Suicide by Grenade" and "People Who Drowned". The Internet is full of such fare. Another site boasts that it "collects images and information... to present the viewer with a truly unpleasant experience. " True enough, since among the site’’s recent photos was one of a man being hit by a car, and another of the grotesque remains of a person killed by a shotgun blast. Then there’’s a "celebrity morgue" site that posts photos of famous people dead at crime scenes and on autopsy tables. There’’s even a website that reviews violence-filled sites, praising one for " videos of people jumping from buildings, dying by fire and explosion and guns, and otherwise suffering," and another for showing "disease, executions, murder, deformity, vivisection, accidents, genocide." You can sense the reviewer’’s glee when he writes, "OK, gross-out fans, strap on your seat belts!" It’’s not news to anyone that the Internet is awash (泛滥的) with pornography. But videos like the Nick Berg murder are a reminder that there’’s something even more disturbing now spreading across the Web. Call it "violence porn" —the latest degradation of our popular culture, in which gruesome (毛骨悚然的) injuries and deaths are glorified and presented in wincing (抽搐的) detail. Such imagery leads to " an increasing desensitization (迟钝) to violence which carries over into the real world," says Dave Walsh of the National Institute on Media and the Family. More bluntly, it’’s like an invitation to mass psychosis. And make no mistake, viewing true-life violence is catching on. According to the operator of one of these sites, his traffic has multiplied over the last several years from a few thousand visitors a day to more than 150,000. With a simple click of the mouse, anyone can take a gander (一瞥) at someone else’’s nightmare. The site that posted the shotgun victim says that 250,000 individuals peruse their web pages each day. When one schoolteacher wrote the site to complain that students had bookmarked it on their computers, the posted reply said, "The Net is not a baby-sitter!" and blamed the problem on children "roaming the Net unsupervised. " Meanwhile, a recent University of Michigan study revealed that steady exposure as a child to violent screen images can make young adults more likely to turn to violence themselves. "I have no doubt that our culture today has a coarsening effect," says Joanne Cantor, a psychologist at the University of Wisconsin in Madison. " The more you live in a world where violence and hostility are the norm, the more you adopt a hostile mental framework. " Some even suggest that the pictures of American soldiers posed smiling alongside abused Iraqi prisoners at Abu Ghraib prison are a reflection of the increased callousness in our society. One columnist wrote in New Hampshire’’s Union Leader newspaper; "We’’d be missing a few dots if we didn’’t admit that the culture that birthed our young soldiers has dumbed down the definition of human dignity." But the violence porn peddlers don’’t care. Many are turning a big profit, thanks to ads on their websites, as well as videos, T-shirts and other merchandise. They also dress up their voyeurism (偷窥癖) in free-speech clothing. "Privacy rights have to take a second place to First Amendment free-speech rights," says Lawrence Walters, a lawyer who has represented several violence and porn websites. "The deceased, quite frankly, don’’t have a continued privacy right." Good to know. But whatever happened to respecting the dead And what about relatives of people who turn up in gruesome pictures on the Internet One website heard from a family claiming a photo showed the mangled body of their nephew, who had killed himself by getting in the path of a train. The site posted this cruel response: "We ask that, in the future, this family conduct their suicides in a less public manner." Some Internet filters can help shield children from sites like this, but face it; It’’s ea

A.show the intensified situation of terrorist terror in the United States
B.express his anger over the inhuman acts of the terrorists
C.express his condolence over the death of the two American fellow citizens
D.illustrate the rampant outpouring of unhealthy violent contents on Internet

41.I first became aware of the unemployment problem in 1928. At that time I had just come back from Burma, where unemployment was only a word, and I had gone to Burma when I was still a boy and the post-war boom was not quite over. When I first saw unemployed men at close quarters, the thing that horrified and amazed me was to find that many of them were ashamed of being unemployed. I was very ignorant, but not so ignorant as to imagine that when the loss of foreign markets pushes two million men out of work, those two million are to blame. But at that time nobody cared to admit that unemployment was inevitable, because this meant admitting that it would probably continue. The middle classes were still talking about "lazy idle loafers on the dole" and saying that "these men could all find work if they wanted to," and naturally these opinions affected the working class themselves. I remember the shock of astonishment it gave me, when I first met with tramps and beggars, to find that a fair proportion, per- haps a quarter, of these beings whom I had been taught to regard as cynical parasites, were decent young miners and cotton workers gazing at their destiny with the same sort of dumb amazement as an animal in trap. They simply could not understand what was happening to them. They had been brought up to work, but it seemed as if they were never going to have the chance of working again. In their circumstance it was inevitable, at first, that they should be filled with a feeling of personal degradation. That was the attitude towards unemployment in those days: it was a disaster which happened to you as an individual and for which you were to blame. The reason why their unemployment so confused the young miners and cotton workers is that _______.

A.they had been brought up on the assumption that they had work to do
B.they had not previously realized how degrading it would feel to be out of work
C.they were definitely not going to be able to work again
D.they did not expect to be the objects of middle-class criticism

42.I first became aware of the unemployment problem in 1928. At that time I had just come back from Burma, where unemployment was only a word, and I had gone to Burma when I was still a boy and the post-war boom was not quite over. When I first saw unemployed men at close quarters, the thing that horrified and amazed me was to find that many of them were ashamed of being unemployed. I was very ignorant, but not so ignorant as to imagine that when the loss of foreign markets pushes two million men out of work, those two million are to blame. But at that time nobody cared to admit that unemployment was inevitable, because this meant admitting that it would probably continue. The middle classes were still talking about "lazy idle loafers on the dole" and saying that "these men could all find work if they wanted to," and naturally these opinions affected the working class themselves. I remember the shock of astonishment it gave me, when I first met with tramps and beggars, to find that a fair proportion, per- haps a quarter, of these beings whom I had been taught to regard as cynical parasites, were decent young miners and cotton workers gazing at their destiny with the same sort of dumb amazement as an animal in trap. They simply could not understand what was happening to them. They had been brought up to work, but it seemed as if they were never going to have the chance of working again. In their circumstance it was inevitable, at first, that they should be filled with a feeling of personal degradation. That was the attitude towards unemployment in those days: it was a disaster which happened to you as an individual and for which you were to blame. In the passage as a whole, the author’’s attitude to unemployment is _______.

A.that it was a disaster for which the individuals were to blame
B.the shock that it should have so degrading an effect on decent people
C.the astonishment that the unemployed cannot understand what had happened to them
D.the amazement that the loss of overseas trade can have such severe effects on the mining and cotton industries

43.The Internet has spawned (大量输出) a sick new craze: violence porn. Daniel Pearl and Nick Berg had three awful things in common. Both were Jewish Americans who were kidnapped by Islamic terrorists. Both were beheaded (斩首). And both had their excruciating (剧烈的) deaths recorded and then replayed thousands, perhaps millions, of times over the Internet. One of the websites that featured the killing of Pearl, the Wall Street Journal reporter abducted in Pakistan in 2002, was also among the first to post the footage of Berg’’s execution two years later in Iraq. " Yes, we have the American beheading video," its home page proudly declared. Is this a website sponsored by militant Islamists Nope. It’’s a site based here in the United States with the sole mission of celebrating stomach-turning violence. Under the motto "Can You Handle Life " the site displays hundreds of images of dead, dying and mangled human beings. Some of its recent offerings were listed under titles such as "Shocking Murder Images," "Suicide by Grenade" and "People Who Drowned". The Internet is full of such fare. Another site boasts that it "collects images and information... to present the viewer with a truly unpleasant experience. " True enough, since among the site’’s recent photos was one of a man being hit by a car, and another of the grotesque remains of a person killed by a shotgun blast. Then there’’s a "celebrity morgue" site that posts photos of famous people dead at crime scenes and on autopsy tables. There’’s even a website that reviews violence-filled sites, praising one for " videos of people jumping from buildings, dying by fire and explosion and guns, and otherwise suffering," and another for showing "disease, executions, murder, deformity, vivisection, accidents, genocide." You can sense the reviewer’’s glee when he writes, "OK, gross-out fans, strap on your seat belts!" It’’s not news to anyone that the Internet is awash (泛滥的) with pornography. But videos like the Nick Berg murder are a reminder that there’’s something even more disturbing now spreading across the Web. Call it "violence porn" —the latest degradation of our popular culture, in which gruesome (毛骨悚然的) injuries and deaths are glorified and presented in wincing (抽搐的) detail. Such imagery leads to " an increasing desensitization (迟钝) to violence which carries over into the real world," says Dave Walsh of the National Institute on Media and the Family. More bluntly, it’’s like an invitation to mass psychosis. And make no mistake, viewing true-life violence is catching on. According to the operator of one of these sites, his traffic has multiplied over the last several years from a few thousand visitors a day to more than 150,000. With a simple click of the mouse, anyone can take a gander (一瞥) at someone else’’s nightmare. The site that posted the shotgun victim says that 250,000 individuals peruse their web pages each day. When one schoolteacher wrote the site to complain that students had bookmarked it on their computers, the posted reply said, "The Net is not a baby-sitter!" and blamed the problem on children "roaming the Net unsupervised. " Meanwhile, a recent University of Michigan study revealed that steady exposure as a child to violent screen images can make young adults more likely to turn to violence themselves. "I have no doubt that our culture today has a coarsening effect," says Joanne Cantor, a psychologist at the University of Wisconsin in Madison. " The more you live in a world where violence and hostility are the norm, the more you adopt a hostile mental framework. " Some even suggest that the pictures of American soldiers posed smiling alongside abused Iraqi prisoners at Abu Ghraib prison are a reflection of the increased callousness in our society. One columnist wrote in New Hampshire’’s Union Leader newspaper; "We’’d be missing a few dots if we didn’’t admit that the culture that birthed our young soldiers has dumbed down the definition of human dignity." But the violence porn peddlers don’’t care. Many are turning a big profit, thanks to ads on their websites, as well as videos, T-shirts and other merchandise. They also dress up their voyeurism (偷窥癖) in free-speech clothing. "Privacy rights have to take a second place to First Amendment free-speech rights," says Lawrence Walters, a lawyer who has represented several violence and porn websites. "The deceased, quite frankly, don’’t have a continued privacy right." Good to know. But whatever happened to respecting the dead And what about relatives of people who turn up in gruesome pictures on the Internet One website heard from a family claiming a photo showed the mangled body of their nephew, who had killed himself by getting in the path of a train. The site posted this cruel response: "We ask that, in the future, this family conduct their suicides in a less public manner." Some Internet filters can help shield children from sites like this, but face it; It’’s ea

A.There has been a widespread boom in the Internet industry.
B.The terrorists run the violence-oriented websites to agitate America.
C.The Internet contents are getting more and more sick and sensational.
D.The violence website owners have a sense of guilt for their business.

44.The Internet has spawned (大量输出) a sick new craze: violence porn. Daniel Pearl and Nick Berg had three awful things in common. Both were Jewish Americans who were kidnapped by Islamic terrorists. Both were beheaded (斩首). And both had their excruciating (剧烈的) deaths recorded and then replayed thousands, perhaps millions, of times over the Internet. One of the websites that featured the killing of Pearl, the Wall Street Journal reporter abducted in Pakistan in 2002, was also among the first to post the footage of Berg’’s execution two years later in Iraq. " Yes, we have the American beheading video," its home page proudly declared. Is this a website sponsored by militant Islamists Nope. It’’s a site based here in the United States with the sole mission of celebrating stomach-turning violence. Under the motto "Can You Handle Life " the site displays hundreds of images of dead, dying and mangled human beings. Some of its recent offerings were listed under titles such as "Shocking Murder Images," "Suicide by Grenade" and "People Who Drowned". The Internet is full of such fare. Another site boasts that it "collects images and information... to present the viewer with a truly unpleasant experience. " True enough, since among the site’’s recent photos was one of a man being hit by a car, and another of the grotesque remains of a person killed by a shotgun blast. Then there’’s a "celebrity morgue" site that posts photos of famous people dead at crime scenes and on autopsy tables. There’’s even a website that reviews violence-filled sites, praising one for " videos of people jumping from buildings, dying by fire and explosion and guns, and otherwise suffering," and another for showing "disease, executions, murder, deformity, vivisection, accidents, genocide." You can sense the reviewer’’s glee when he writes, "OK, gross-out fans, strap on your seat belts!" It’’s not news to anyone that the Internet is awash (泛滥的) with pornography. But videos like the Nick Berg murder are a reminder that there’’s something even more disturbing now spreading across the Web. Call it "violence porn" —the latest degradation of our popular culture, in which gruesome (毛骨悚然的) injuries and deaths are glorified and presented in wincing (抽搐的) detail. Such imagery leads to " an increasing desensitization (迟钝) to violence which carries over into the real world," says Dave Walsh of the National Institute on Media and the Family. More bluntly, it’’s like an invitation to mass psychosis. And make no mistake, viewing true-life violence is catching on. According to the operator of one of these sites, his traffic has multiplied over the last several years from a few thousand visitors a day to more than 150,000. With a simple click of the mouse, anyone can take a gander (一瞥) at someone else’’s nightmare. The site that posted the shotgun victim says that 250,000 individuals peruse their web pages each day. When one schoolteacher wrote the site to complain that students had bookmarked it on their computers, the posted reply said, "The Net is not a baby-sitter!" and blamed the problem on children "roaming the Net unsupervised. " Meanwhile, a recent University of Michigan study revealed that steady exposure as a child to violent screen images can make young adults more likely to turn to violence themselves. "I have no doubt that our culture today has a coarsening effect," says Joanne Cantor, a psychologist at the University of Wisconsin in Madison. " The more you live in a world where violence and hostility are the norm, the more you adopt a hostile mental framework. " Some even suggest that the pictures of American soldiers posed smiling alongside abused Iraqi prisoners at Abu Ghraib prison are a reflection of the increased callousness in our society. One columnist wrote in New Hampshire’’s Union Leader newspaper; "We’’d be missing a few dots if we didn’’t admit that the culture that birthed our young soldiers has dumbed down the definition of human dignity." But the violence porn peddlers don’’t care. Many are turning a big profit, thanks to ads on their websites, as well as videos, T-shirts and other merchandise. They also dress up their voyeurism (偷窥癖) in free-speech clothing. "Privacy rights have to take a second place to First Amendment free-speech rights," says Lawrence Walters, a lawyer who has represented several violence and porn websites. "The deceased, quite frankly, don’’t have a continued privacy right." Good to know. But whatever happened to respecting the dead And what about relatives of people who turn up in gruesome pictures on the Internet One website heard from a family claiming a photo showed the mangled body of their nephew, who had killed himself by getting in the path of a train. The site posted this cruel response: "We ask that, in the future, this family conduct their suicides in a less public manner." Some Internet filters can help shield children from sites like this, but face it; It’’s ea

A.they will be bored and then get rid of the habit
B.they may put into practice what they’’ve learn from violence
C.they will begin to doubt the existence of the violence
D.they will learn from others’’, misfortunes

45.The Internet has spawned (大量输出) a sick new craze: violence porn. Daniel Pearl and Nick Berg had three awful things in common. Both were Jewish Americans who were kidnapped by Islamic terrorists. Both were beheaded (斩首). And both had their excruciating (剧烈的) deaths recorded and then replayed thousands, perhaps millions, of times over the Internet. One of the websites that featured the killing of Pearl, the Wall Street Journal reporter abducted in Pakistan in 2002, was also among the first to post the footage of Berg’’s execution two years later in Iraq. " Yes, we have the American beheading video," its home page proudly declared. Is this a website sponsored by militant Islamists Nope. It’’s a site based here in the United States with the sole mission of celebrating stomach-turning violence. Under the motto "Can You Handle Life " the site displays hundreds of images of dead, dying and mangled human beings. Some of its recent offerings were listed under titles such as "Shocking Murder Images," "Suicide by Grenade" and "People Who Drowned". The Internet is full of such fare. Another site boasts that it "collects images and information... to present the viewer with a truly unpleasant experience. " True enough, since among the site’’s recent photos was one of a man being hit by a car, and another of the grotesque remains of a person killed by a shotgun blast. Then there’’s a "celebrity morgue" site that posts photos of famous people dead at crime scenes and on autopsy tables. There’’s even a website that reviews violence-filled sites, praising one for " videos of people jumping from buildings, dying by fire and explosion and guns, and otherwise suffering," and another for showing "disease, executions, murder, deformity, vivisection, accidents, genocide." You can sense the reviewer’’s glee when he writes, "OK, gross-out fans, strap on your seat belts!" It’’s not news to anyone that the Internet is awash (泛滥的) with pornography. But videos like the Nick Berg murder are a reminder that there’’s something even more disturbing now spreading across the Web. Call it "violence porn" —the latest degradation of our popular culture, in which gruesome (毛骨悚然的) injuries and deaths are glorified and presented in wincing (抽搐的) detail. Such imagery leads to " an increasing desensitization (迟钝) to violence which carries over into the real world," says Dave Walsh of the National Institute on Media and the Family. More bluntly, it’’s like an invitation to mass psychosis. And make no mistake, viewing true-life violence is catching on. According to the operator of one of these sites, his traffic has multiplied over the last several years from a few thousand visitors a day to more than 150,000. With a simple click of the mouse, anyone can take a gander (一瞥) at someone else’’s nightmare. The site that posted the shotgun victim says that 250,000 individuals peruse their web pages each day. When one schoolteacher wrote the site to complain that students had bookmarked it on their computers, the posted reply said, "The Net is not a baby-sitter!" and blamed the problem on children "roaming the Net unsupervised. " Meanwhile, a recent University of Michigan study revealed that steady exposure as a child to violent screen images can make young adults more likely to turn to violence themselves. "I have no doubt that our culture today has a coarsening effect," says Joanne Cantor, a psychologist at the University of Wisconsin in Madison. " The more you live in a world where violence and hostility are the norm, the more you adopt a hostile mental framework. " Some even suggest that the pictures of American soldiers posed smiling alongside abused Iraqi prisoners at Abu Ghraib prison are a reflection of the increased callousness in our society. One columnist wrote in New Hampshire’’s Union Leader newspaper; "We’’d be missing a few dots if we didn’’t admit that the culture that birthed our young soldiers has dumbed down the definition of human dignity." But the violence porn peddlers don’’t care. Many are turning a big profit, thanks to ads on their websites, as well as videos, T-shirts and other merchandise. They also dress up their voyeurism (偷窥癖) in free-speech clothing. "Privacy rights have to take a second place to First Amendment free-speech rights," says Lawrence Walters, a lawyer who has represented several violence and porn websites. "The deceased, quite frankly, don’’t have a continued privacy right." Good to know. But whatever happened to respecting the dead And what about relatives of people who turn up in gruesome pictures on the Internet One website heard from a family claiming a photo showed the mangled body of their nephew, who had killed himself by getting in the path of a train. The site posted this cruel response: "We ask that, in the future, this family conduct their suicides in a less public manner." Some Internet filters can help shield children from sites like this, but face it; It’’s ea

A.Justify the evil nature of their business by claiming they have the right of press freedom.
B.Cover their dirty deals by offering free products.
C.Blame others for their own fault.
D.Distract public attention by giving free speech so that their strange behaviors can be forgotten.

46.The Internet has spawned (大量输出) a sick new craze: violence porn. Daniel Pearl and Nick Berg had three awful things in common. Both were Jewish Americans who were kidnapped by Islamic terrorists. Both were beheaded (斩首). And both had their excruciating (剧烈的) deaths recorded and then replayed thousands, perhaps millions, of times over the Internet. One of the websites that featured the killing of Pearl, the Wall Street Journal reporter abducted in Pakistan in 2002, was also among the first to post the footage of Berg’’s execution two years later in Iraq. " Yes, we have the American beheading video," its home page proudly declared. Is this a website sponsored by militant Islamists Nope. It’’s a site based here in the United States with the sole mission of celebrating stomach-turning violence. Under the motto "Can You Handle Life " the site displays hundreds of images of dead, dying and mangled human beings. Some of its recent offerings were listed under titles such as "Shocking Murder Images," "Suicide by Grenade" and "People Who Drowned". The Internet is full of such fare. Another site boasts that it "collects images and information... to present the viewer with a truly unpleasant experience. " True enough, since among the site’’s recent photos was one of a man being hit by a car, and another of the grotesque remains of a person killed by a shotgun blast. Then there’’s a "celebrity morgue" site that posts photos of famous people dead at crime scenes and on autopsy tables. There’’s even a website that reviews violence-filled sites, praising one for " videos of people jumping from buildings, dying by fire and explosion and guns, and otherwise suffering," and another for showing "disease, executions, murder, deformity, vivisection, accidents, genocide." You can sense the reviewer’’s glee when he writes, "OK, gross-out fans, strap on your seat belts!" It’’s not news to anyone that the Internet is awash (泛滥的) with pornography. But videos like the Nick Berg murder are a reminder that there’’s something even more disturbing now spreading across the Web. Call it "violence porn" —the latest degradation of our popular culture, in which gruesome (毛骨悚然的) injuries and deaths are glorified and presented in wincing (抽搐的) detail. Such imagery leads to " an increasing desensitization (迟钝) to violence which carries over into the real world," says Dave Walsh of the National Institute on Media and the Family. More bluntly, it’’s like an invitation to mass psychosis. And make no mistake, viewing true-life violence is catching on. According to the operator of one of these sites, his traffic has multiplied over the last several years from a few thousand visitors a day to more than 150,000. With a simple click of the mouse, anyone can take a gander (一瞥) at someone else’’s nightmare. The site that posted the shotgun victim says that 250,000 individuals peruse their web pages each day. When one schoolteacher wrote the site to complain that students had bookmarked it on their computers, the posted reply said, "The Net is not a baby-sitter!" and blamed the problem on children "roaming the Net unsupervised. " Meanwhile, a recent University of Michigan study revealed that steady exposure as a child to violent screen images can make young adults more likely to turn to violence themselves. "I have no doubt that our culture today has a coarsening effect," says Joanne Cantor, a psychologist at the University of Wisconsin in Madison. " The more you live in a world where violence and hostility are the norm, the more you adopt a hostile mental framework. " Some even suggest that the pictures of American soldiers posed smiling alongside abused Iraqi prisoners at Abu Ghraib prison are a reflection of the increased callousness in our society. One columnist wrote in New Hampshire’’s Union Leader newspaper; "We’’d be missing a few dots if we didn’’t admit that the culture that birthed our young soldiers has dumbed down the definition of human dignity." But the violence porn peddlers don’’t care. Many are turning a big profit, thanks to ads on their websites, as well as videos, T-shirts and other merchandise. They also dress up their voyeurism (偷窥癖) in free-speech clothing. "Privacy rights have to take a second place to First Amendment free-speech rights," says Lawrence Walters, a lawyer who has represented several violence and porn websites. "The deceased, quite frankly, don’’t have a continued privacy right." Good to know. But whatever happened to respecting the dead And what about relatives of people who turn up in gruesome pictures on the Internet One website heard from a family claiming a photo showed the mangled body of their nephew, who had killed himself by getting in the path of a train. The site posted this cruel response: "We ask that, in the future, this family conduct their suicides in a less public manner." Some Internet filters can help shield children from sites like this, but face it; It’’s ea

A.the violence website peddlers feel sorry for the family’’s loss
B.it is possible to prevent children get access to the violence porn
C.there has been an expanding concern about others’’ privacy
D.the author feels positive about there being no rules in the Internet world

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